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r//(/f //// 

E ^ E IL^. 

O F 

E O N D ON. 
Printed for B.W ELITE 



HIS trifle was written in the year 1772, and prefented to 
Do&or Robert Ramsay, Profeflbr of Natural Hiftory in 
Edinburgh, for the ufe of the clafs over which he prefided. He 
printed one impreflion in the following yearj and then refigned 
to me the copy. 

Death deprived the community of a worthy member, in the 
lofs of my friend, on December 15th, 1778. I fuffer the Dedica- 
tion to remain in this edition, as a fmall monument to his me- 
mory ; and of the efteem in which I held a gentleman, ever active 
in all good offices to 


Dec. aoth, 1780. 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Lyrasis Members and Sloan Foundation 

T O 




Dear Sir, 

THINK myfelf happy in having an opportunity of 
giving you this mark of the fenfe I have of your 
fteady friendship, from its origin, in 1769, to the prefent 
moment. From the beginning, it has proved a regular 
feries of good offices : You never confidered me with the 
jealoufy of a Rival courting the fame Miftrefs ; but, with 
uncommon generofity, promoted all my purfuits after 
Dame Nature, whether fhe retired to the depths of the 
Highland Glens, or lurked amidft the intricate groups of 
the ftormy Hebrides. If, in my late expedition, fhe has 
granted me any favors (for fhe proved rather coy) fhe 
humbled me by faying, that I was indebted to you for 
them. So that I find myfelf bound to make public ac- 
knowlegements of advantages acquired by means of the 
clue you gave of arriving at the few I have obtained. 



Notwithstanding I own your power with the 
Lady on your fide of the Tweed, yet I never can be induced 
to omit any opportunity of recommending myfelf to her 
good graces, and, with you, muft ever remain a warm ad- 
mirer of her univerfal charms. But the following analyfis 
of one which captivates me moft, is now offered to you, 
with the hopes of meeting with your approbation, and 
that of the feveral votaries who depend on you for a more 
intimate acquaintance with her various beauties. Long 
may you enjoy health, and every happinefs, to perform fo 
agreeable a talk : May you be fuccefsful in extending her 
empire : Good fortune attend you in each of her haunts, 
whether fhe affects the air, the woods, or the fields ; whe- 
ther, like an Oread, fhe treads jocund on the mifty moun- 
tain s top ; or a Naiad, fporting in your rapid ftreams. 
Again, fuccefs attend you every where; and may none 
but Birds of good omen flutter round you. 

Sis licet felix ubicunque mavis, 
Et memor noftri, mihi care, vivas : 
Teque nee lasvus vetet ire Picus, 

Nee vasa Cornix. 

Jam. i, 1773. 



ORnithology is a fcience which treats of Birds ; defcribes 
their form, external and internal; and teaches their ceco- 
nomy and their ufes. 

A Bird is an animal covered with feathers; furnifhed with a 
billj having two wings, and only two legs j with the faculty, ex- 
cept in very few inftanccs, of removing itfelf from place to place 
through the air. 

External Parts of BIRDS. 
A Bird may be divided into Head, Body, and Limbs. 


Roftrum, or bill, is a hard horny fubftance, confuting of an up- Bill. 

per and under part, extending from the head, and anfwering to 
the mandibles in quadrupeds. Its edges generally plain and lharp, 
like the edge of a knife, cultrated *, as the bills of Crows j but 
fometimes ferrated, as in the Toucan -, ox jagged, as in the Gan- 

* This and other terms are explained by figures in the British Zoolocv, 
vol. i. tab. xr. A few terms are explained from the figure on the title. 



net and fome Herons ; or peclinated, as in the Duck; or denti- 
culated, as in the Mergansers; but always deftitute of real teeth 
immerfed in fockets. 

The bafe in Falcons is covered with a naked fkin or Cere 
(Cera ;) in fome birds with a carneous appendage, as the Tur- 
key; or a callous, as the Curasso. 

In birds of prey, the bill is hooked at the end, and fit for tear- 
ing : in Crows, ftrait and ftrong, for picking : in water-fowl, ei- 
ther long and pointed, for ftriking; or flender and blunt, for fearch- 
ing in the mire; or flat and broad, for gobbling. Its other ufes 
are for building nefts; feeding the young; climbing, as in Par- 
rots ; or, laftly, as an inftrument of defence, or offence. 
Nostrils. (Nares) the nice inftrumtnts of difcerning their food, are placed 

either in the middle of the upper mandible, or near the bafe, or at 
the bafe, as in Parrots ; or behind the bafe, as in Toucans and 
Hornbills : but fome birds, as the Gannet, are deftitute of nof- 
trils. The noftrils are generally naked, but fometimes covered 
with briftles reflected over them, as in Crows ; or hid in the fea- 
thers, as in Parrots, &c. 
Parts of the The forepart of the head is called the Front (Capiftrum ;) the 

fummit (vertex) or the crown : the hind part, with the next 
joint of the neck (nucha) the nape : the fpace between the bill 
and the eyes, which in Herons, Grebe's, &c. is naked (lora) the 
ftraps : the fpace beneath the eyes (genae) the cheeks. 
Orbits. (Orbitae) the eye-lids ; in fome birds naked, in others covered 

with fhort foft feathers. 

Birds have no eye-brows ;-but the Grous kind have in lieu a 
fcarlet naked fkin above, which are called fupercilia ; the fame 



word is alio applied to any line of a different color that paffes froru 
the bill over the eyes. 

Birds are deftitute of auricles, or external ears, having an ori- Ears. 

fice for admiffion of found, open in all, but Owls, whofe ears are 
furnifhed with valves. 

The chin, the fpace between the parts of the lower mandible Chin. 

and the neck, is generally covered with feathers ; but in the Cock, 
and fome others, have carneous appendages, called Wattles (Pa- 
learia-,) in others, is naked, and furnifhed with a Pouch, capable 
of great dilatation (Sacculus) as in the Pelican and Corvorants. 

(Collum) the part that connects the head to the body, is longer Neck-. 

in birds than any other animals ; and longer in fuch as have long 
legs than thofe that have fhort, either for gathering up their meat 
from the ground, or finking their prey in the water, except in 
web-footed fowl, which are, by reverfing their bodies, deftined to 
fearch for food at the bottom of waters, as Swans, and the like. 
Birds, efpecially thofe that have a long neck, have the power of 
retracting, bending, or ftretching it out, in order to change their 
center of gravity from their legs to their wings. 


Consists of the Back (Dorfum) which is flat, ftrait, and in- Back. 

clines, terminated by the 

(Uropygium) furnifhed with two glands, fecreting a fattifh liquor Rump, 

from an orifice with which each is furnifhed : and which the birds 
exprefs with their bills, to oil or anoint the difcompofed parts of their 
feathers. Thefe glands are particularly large in mofl web-footed 
water-fowl i but in the Grebes, which want tails, they are fmaller. 

B 2 (Peclus) 



Brjast. (PeHus) is ridged and very mufcular, defended by aforked bone 

(clavicula) the merry thought. 

The fhort-winged birds, fuch as Grous, &c. have their breads 

moft flefhy or mufcular; as they require greater powers in flying 

than the long-winged birds, fuch as Gulls, Herons, which arc 

fpecifically lighter, and have greater extent of fail. 

Belly. (Abdomen) is covered with a ftrong fkin, and contains the 

Veht. The Vent, or vent-feathers (Crijfum) which lies between the 

thighs and the tail. The Anus lies hid in thofe feathers. 


Wines. Wings (Alae) adapted for flight in all birds, except the Dodo, 

Ostriches, great Auk, and the Pinguins, whofe wings are too 
ihort for the ufe of flying; but in the Dodo and Ostrich, when 
extended, ferve to accelerate their motion in running ; and in the 
Pinguins perform the office of fins, in fwimming or diving. 
Bastard Winc. The wings have near their end an appendage covered with four 
or five feathers, called the Bastard Wing (ala nolba) and alula 
Lesser Coverts. The lefTer coverts (tetlrices) are the feathers which lie on the 
bones of the wings. 
Greater The greater coverts are thofe which lie beneath the former, 

and cover the quil-feathers and the fecondaries. 
Quil-ieathers. The Quil-feathers (primores) fpring from the firft bones (digiti 
and metacarpi) of the wings, and are ten in number. 

QuiL-feathers are broader on their inner than exterior fides. 
Secondaries. The Secondaries (fecondaria) are thofe that rife from the fe- 



cond part (cubitus) and are about eighteen in number, are equally 
broad on both fides. The primary and fecondary wing-feathers 
are called Remiges. 

A tuft of feathers placed beyond the fecondaries, near the Tirtials, 
junction of the wings with the body. This, in water-fowl, is ge- 
nerally longer than the fecondaries, and cuneiform. 

The Scapulars are a tuft of long feathers arifing near the Scapulars. 
junction of the wings (brachia) with the body, and lie along the 
fides of the back, but may be eafily diftinguifhed, and raifed with 
one's finger. 

The Inner Coverts are thofe that clothe the under fide of the Inner Coverts, 

The Subaxillary are peculiar to the greater Paradise. Subaxillary 

The wings of fome birds are inftruments of offence ; the Anhi- fathers, 

ma of Marcgrave has two ftrong fpines in the front of each wing, 
a fpecies of Plover, Edw. tab. 47. and 280. has a fingle one on 
each j the whole tribe of Jacana, and the Gambo, or fpur-winged 
Goofe of Mr. Willughby, the fame. 

The Tail is the director, or rudder, of birds in their flight ; Tail. 

they rife, fink, or turn by its means j for, when the head points 
one way, the tail inclines to the other fide : it is, befides, an equi- 
librium or counterpoife to the other parts ; the ufe is very evident 
in the Kite and Swallows. 

The Tail confifts of ftrong feathers (reprices) ten in number, 
as in the Woodpeckers, &c. twelve in the Hawk, tribe, and many 
others: the Gallinaceous, the Mergansers, and Duck kind, 
of more. 



It is either even at the end, as in moll birds, or forked, as in 
Swallows, &c. or cuneated, as in Magpies, &c or rounded, as 
in the Purple Jackdaw of Catejby. The Grebe is deftitute of a 
tail, the rump being covered with down ; and that of the Casso- 
wary with the feathers of the back. 

Immediately over the tail, are certain feathers that fpring from 
the lower part of the back, and are called the coverts of the tail 
Thighs. (Femora) are covered entirely with feathers in all land-birds, 

except the Bustards and the Ostriches ; the lower part of thofe 
of all waders, or cloven-footed water-fowl, are naked; that of all 
webbed-footed fowl the fame, but in a lefs degree ; in rapacious 
birds, are very mufcular. 
Legs. (Crura) Thofe of rapacious fowls very ftrong, furnifhed with 

large tendons, and fitted for tearing, and a firm gripe. The legs 
of fome of this genus are covered with feathers down to the 
toes, fuch as the Golden Eagle, others to the very nails j but 
thofe of moft other birds are covered with fcales, or with a fkin 
divided into fegments, or continuous. In fome of the Pies, and 
in all the Passerine tribe, the fkin is thin and membranous ; in 
thofe of web-footed water-fowl, ftrong. 

The legs of moft birds are placed near the center of gravity : 
In land-birds, or in Waders that want the back toe, exactly fo ; 
for they want that appendage to keep them erect. Auks, Grebes, 
Divers, and Pinguins, have their legs placed quite behind, fo 
are neceffitated to fit erect : Their pace is aukward and difficult, 
walking like men in fetters ; hence Linnaus ftyles their feet 
pedes compedes. 

9 The 



The legs of all cloven-footed water-fowl are long, as they 
muft wade in fearch of food : Of the palmated, fhort, except 
thofe of the Flamingo, the Avoset, and the Courier. 

(Pedes) All land-birds that perch have a large back toe i. 
Molt of them have three toes forward, and one backward. 
Woodpeckers, Parrots, and other birds that climb much, 
have two forward, two backward ; but Parrots have the power 
of bringing one of their hind toes forward while they are feeding 
themfelves. Owls have alfo the power of turning one of their 
fore toes backward. All the toes of the Swift turn forwards, 
which is peculiar among land-birds : The Tridactylous 
Woodpecker is alfo anomalous, having only two toes forward, 
one backward : The Ostrich is another, having but two toes. 

(Digiti) The toes of all Waders are divided} but, between Tois> 

the exterior and middle toe, is generally a fmall web, reaching 
as far as the firft joint. 

The Spoonbill ; and a Sandpiper I received from N. Ame- 
rica, have webs that reach half way up each toe, or are fetni- 

The toes of birds that fwim are either plain, as in the fingle . 
inilance of the common water Hen or Gallinule ; or pinnated, 
as in the Coots and Grebes ; or entirely webbed or palmated, 
as in all other fwimmers. 

All the Plover tribe, or Charadrii, want the back toe. 
In the fwimmers, the fame want prevales among the Albatros- 
ses and Auks. No water- fowl perch, except certain Herons ; 
the Corvorant ; and the Shag. 

(Ungues) Rapacious birds have very ftrong, hooked, and Claw*. 




fharp claws, Vultures excepted, Thofe of all land-birds that 
rooft on trees have alio hooked claws, to enable them to perch ia 
fafety while afleep. 

The Gallinaceous tribe have broad concave claws for fcrap- 
jng up the ground. 

Grebes have flat nails like the human. 

Among water-fowl only the Skua, Br. Zcol. II. No. 243. and 
the Black, toed Gull, Br. Zool. II. No. 244. have ftronghook- 
ed or aquiline claws. All land-birds perch on trees, except the 
Struthjous and fome of the Gallinaceous tribe. Parrots 
climb j Woodpeckers creep up the bodies and boughs of trees ; 
Swallows cling* 
•• All water-fowl reft on the ground, except certain Herons, 
and one fpecies of Ibis, the Spoonbill, one or two fpecies of 
Ducks, and of Corvorants. 


Feathers are defigned for two ufes, as coverings from the in- 
clemency of the weather, and inftruments of motion through the 
air. They are placed in fuch a manner as to fall over one an- 
other, tegulatim, fo as to permit the wet to run off, and to ex- 
clude the cold j and thofe on the body are placed in a quincun- 
cial form, molt apparent in the thick-fkinned water-fowl, par- 
ticularly in the Divers. 
Shafts. The parts of a feather are, the Shafts, corneous, ftrong, 

light, rounded, and hollow at the lower part j at the upper, 
convex above, concave beneath, and chiefly compofed of a 



On each fide the Shafts, are the 

Vanes, broad on one fide, narrow on the other: Each vane Vanes. 

confifts of a multitude of thin lamina *, ftifF, and of the nature 
of a fplit quil. Thefe lamina are clofely braced together by 
the elegant contrivance of a multitude of fmall briftles ; thofe on 
one fide hooked, the other ftrait, which lock into each other> and 
keep the vanes fmooth, compact, and ftrong. 

The vanes near the bottom of the fhafts are foft, uncon- 
nected, and downy. 

Feathers are of three kinds; fuch as compofe the inftru- Pen-feathers. 
ments of flight ; as the Pen-feathers ; or thofe which form 
the wings and tail, and have a large fliafr. The vanes of the 
exterior fide bending downward, of the interior upwards, lying 
clofe on each other, fo that, when fpread, not a feather mififes 
its impulfe on the air+. The component parts of thefe feathers 
are defcribed before. 

The feathers that cover the body, which may be properly Plumack. 
called the Plumage, have little fhaft, and much vane, and never 
are exerted or relaxed, unlefs in anger, fright, or illnefs. 

The Down, Plum*, which is difperfed over the whole body Down. 

amidft the plumage, is fhort, foft, unconnected, confifts of lanu- 
ginous vanes, and is intended for excluding that air or water 
which may penetrate or efcape through the former. This is par- 
ticularly apparent in aquatic birds, and remarkably fo in the An- 
serine tribe. There are exceptions to the forms of feathers. 
The vanes of the fubaxillary feathers of the Paradise are un- 
connected, and the lamina diftant, looking like herring-bone. 
* Derhams phyfic. theol, 336. tab. f. 18, 19. f Derham. 

C Thofe 


Thofe'of the tail of the Ostrich, and head of a fpecies of Cu- 
rasso, curled. Thofe of the Cassowary confift of two lhafts, 
arifing from a common ftem at the bottom. As do, at the ap- 
proach of winter (after moulting) thofe of the Ptarmigans of 
Arftic countries. The feathers of the Pingutns, particularly 
thofe of the wings, confifting chiefly of thin flat lhafts, and 
more refemble fcales than feathers ; thofe of the tail, like fplit 


The flight of birds is various ; for, had all the fame, none 
could elude that of rapacious birds. Thofe which are much on 
wing, or flit from place to place, often owe their prefervation 
to that caufe : Thofe in the water to diving. 

Rapacious. Kites, and many of the Falcon tribe, glide fmoothly through 

the air, with fcarce any apparent motion of the wings. 
p IES . Most of the order of Pies fly quick, with a frequent repeti- 

tion of the motion of the wings. The Paradise floats on the 
air. Woodpeckers fly aukwardly, and by jerks, and have a 
propenfity to fink in their progreis. 
Gallinaceous. The Gallinaceous tribe, in general, fly very ftrong and 
fwiftly ; but their courfe is feldom long, by reafon of the weight 
of their bodies. 

Columbine. The Columbine race is of Angular fwiftnefs ; witnefs the 

flight of the Mejfetiger Pigeon. 

Passerine. The Passerine fly with a quick repetition of ftrokes j their 

flight, except in migration, is feldom diftant. 



Among them, the Swallow tribe is remarkably agile, their 
evolutions fudden, and their continuance on wing long. 

Nature hath denied flight to the Struthious j but Mill, in Struthious. 
running, their fhort wings are of ufe, when erect, to collect the 
wind, and, like fails, to accelerate their motion. 

Many of the greater Cloven-footed Water-fowl, or Waders, Wa ders. 
have a flow and flagging flight ; but moft of the letter fly 
fwiftly, and moft of them with extended legs, to compenfate 
the fhortnefs of their tails. Rails and Gallinules, fly with 
their legs hanging down. 

Coots and Grebes, with difficulty are forced from the water j Pinnated feet. 
but when they rife, fly fwiftly. Grebes, and alfo Divers, fly 
with their hind parts downwards, by reafon of the forwardnefs 
of their wings. 

Web-footed fowl are various in their flight ; feveral have a Web-footed; 
failing or flagging wing, fuch as Gulls. Pinguins, and a An- 
gle Auk, are denied the power of flight. Wild-geese, in their 
migrations, do not fry pell-mell, but in a regular figure, in order 
to cut the air with greater eafe ; for example, in long lines, in 
the figure of a > or fome pointed form or letter, as the an- 
cients report that the Cranes aflumed, in their annual migra- 
tions, till their order was broken by florms. 

Strymona fie gelidum, bruma pellente, relinquunt, 

Poturs te, Nile, Grues, primoque volatu 

Effingunt varias, cafu monftrante, figuras, 

Mox ubi percuffit tenfas Not us altior alas, 

Confufos temere immiilae glomerantur in orbes, 

£t turbata perit difperfis litera * pennis. 

Lucan, lib, v. 1. 71 1. 

* T A A. 

C 2 Of 


of BIRDS. 

Most birds are monogamous, or pair, in fpring fixing on a 
mate, and keeping conflant, till the cares of incubation and 
educating the young brood is paft. This is the cafe, as far as we 
know, with all the birds of the firft, fecond, fourth, and fifth orders. 

Birds that lofe their mates early, aflbciate with others; and 
Birds that lofe their firft eggs, will pair and lay again. The male 
as well as female of feveral join alternately in the trouble of in- 
cubation, and always in that of nutrition: When the young are 
hatched, both are bufied in looking out for, and bringing food 
to the neftlings ; and, at that period, the mates of the melodious 
tribes, who, before, were perched on fome fprig, and by their 
warbling alleviated the care of the females confined to the neft, 
now join in the common duty. 

Of the Gallinaceous tribe, the greateft part are polygamous, 
at left in a tame ftate; the Pheasant, many of the Grous, the 
Partridges, and Bustards, are monogamous ; of the Grous, the 
Cock, of the wood, and the Black Game afilmble the females 
during the feafon of love, by their cries : 

Et venerem incertam rapiunt. 

The males of polygamous birds neglect their young, and, in 
fome cafes, would deftroy them, if they met with them. The ceco- 
nomy of the Struthious order, in this refpecr., is obfcure. It is 
probable that the three fpecies in the genus Ostrich are poly- 
gamous, like the common poultry, for they lay many eggs; the 

Dodo is laid to lay but one. 


P R E F A C E. 

All Waders, or cloven-footed fowl, are monogamous, except 
the Ruffs ; and all with pinnated feet, as far as I know, are alfo 

The fwimmers, or web-footed fowl, obferve the fame order, as 
far as can be remarked with any certainty ; but many of the 
Auks aflemble in the rocks in fuch numbers, and each individual 
fo contiguous, that it is not poffible to determine their method in 
this article. 

It may be remarked, that the affection of birds to their young, 
is very violent during the whole time of nutrition, or as long as 
they continue in a helplefs ftate; but fo foon as the brood can fly 
and fhift for itfelf, the parents neglect, and even drive it from their 
haunts, the affection ceafing with the neceffity of it : but, during 
that period, 

The mothers nurfe it, and the fires defend j 
The young difmifs'd to wander earth, or air, 
There flops the inftinct, and there ends the care ; 
The link difiblves, each feeks a frefh embrace, 
Another love fucceeds, another race, 

N I D I F I C A T I O N. 

The Neft of a bird is one of thofe daily miracles, that, from its 
familiarity, is pafTed over without regard. We ftare with wonder 
at things that rarely happen, and neglect the daily operations of 
nature, that ought flrft to excite our admiration, and clame our 

Each bird, after nuptials, prepares a place fuited to its fpecies, 
for the depofiting its eggs, and flickering its little brood : Diffe- 


rent genera, and different fpecies, fet about the tafk in manners 
fuitable to their feveral natures; yet every individual of the fame 
fpecies collects the very fame materials, puts them together in the 
fame form, and chufes the fame fort of fituation for placing this 
temporary habitation. The young bird of the laft year, which ne- 
ver faw the building of a neft, directed by a heaven-taught faga- 
city, purfues the fame plan in the ftructure of it, and felects the 
fame materials as its parent did before. Birds of the fame fpecies, 
of different and remote countries, do the fame. The Swallows 
of England, and of the remoter parts of Germany, obferve the fame 
order of architecture. 
Rapacious. The nefts of the larger rapacious birds are rude, made of fticks 

and bents, but often lined with fomething foft. They generally 
build in high rocks, ruined towers, and in defolate places : ene- 
mies to the whole feathered creation, they feem confcious of at- 
tacks, and feek folitude. A few build upon the ground., the left of Rapacious birds, build their nefts in bufhes, 
with mofs, wool, &c. 
Pjes. The order of Pies is very irregular in the ftructure of their 

nefts. Parrots, and, in fact, all birds with two toes forward and 
two backward (as far as I know) lay their eggs in the hollows of 
trees. And moft of this order creep along the bodies of trees, 
and lodge their eggs alfo within them. 

Crows build in trees : Among therm the neft of the Magpie, 
compofedof rude materials, is made with much art, quite covered 
with thorns, and only a hole left for admittance. 

The nefts of the Orioles are contrived with wonderful faga- 

city, and are hung at the end of fome bough, or between the forks 

5 of 


of extreme branches. In Europe, only three birds have penfile 
nefts ; the common Oriole, the Parus Pendulinus, or Hang- 
nest Titmouse, and one more *. But in the Torrid Zones, 
where the birds fear the fearch of the gliding ferpent and inquifi- 
tive monkey, the inftances are very frequent, a marvellous inftinct 
implanted in them for the prefervation of their young f. 

All of the Gallinaceous and Struthious orders lay their Gallinaceous, 
eggs on the ground. The Ostrich is the only exception, among Struthious. 
birds, of the want of natural affection : Which leavetb her eggs in 
the earth, and -warmeth them in the dufl, and forget teth that the foot 
may cruflo them, or the wild beafi may break them. 

The Columbine race makes a mod artlefs neft; a few flicks Columbine. 
laid acrofs fuffice. 

MosTof thePAssERiNE order buildtheir nefls infhrubs orbulhes, Passerink. 
and fome in holes of walls, or banks. Several in the Torrid Zone 
are penfile from the boughs of trees ; that of the Taylor Bird J, 
a wondrous inftance. Some of this order, fuch as Larks, and the 
Goatsucker, on the ground. Some Swallows make a curious 
plaifter neft beneath the roofs of houfes; and an Indian fpecies, one 
of a certain glutinous matter, which are collected as delicate in- 
gredients for foups of Chinefe epicures. 

Most of the Cloven-footed Water-fowl, or Waders, lay upon the Waders. 

ground. Spoonbills and the Common Heron build in trees, 
and make large nefts with flicks, &c. Storks build on churches, 
or the tops of houfes. 

Coots make a great neft near the water-fide. Coots 

* Vide Tour in Scotland, zd Ed. page 101. 
f Indian Zool. 
J The fame. 



Grebes. Grebes in the water, a floating neft, perhaps adhering to fome 

neighboring reeds. 
Web-footed. Web-footed fowl breed either on the ground, as the Avoset, 

Terns, fome of the Gulls, Mergansers, and Ducks: the laft 
pull the down from their breafts, to make a fofter and warmer 
bed for their young. Auks and Guillemots lay their eggs on 
the naked fhelves of high rocks; Pinguins in holes underground: 
Among the Pelicans, that which gives name to the genus makes 
its neft in the defart, on the ground. Shags, fometimes on trees; 
Corvorants and Gannets, on high rocks, with (licks, dried Al- 
gjf., and other coarfe materials. 


Rafacious. Rapacious birds, in general, lay few eggs; Eagles, and the 

larger kinds, fewer than the lefler. The eggs of Falcons and Owls 
are rounder than thofe of moft other birds. 
Pies. The order of Pies vary greatly in the number of their eggs. 

Parrots lay only two or three white eggs. 

Crows lay fix eggs, greenifti, mottled with dufky. 

Cuckoos, as far as I can learn, two. 

Woodpeckers, Wryneck, and Kingsfisher, lay eggs of a moft 
clear white and femi-tranfparent color. The Woodpeckers lay 
fix, the others more. 

The Nuthatch lays often in the year, eight at a time, white, 
lpotted with brown. 

The Hoopoe lays but two cinerous eggs. 

The Creeper lays a great number of eggs. 

The Honeysucker, the left and moft defencelefs of birds, lays 


PREFACE. xvii 

but two : but Providence wifely prevents the extinction of the 
genus, by a fwiftnefs of flight that eludes every purfuit. 

The Gallinaceous order, the moft ufeful of any to mankind, Gallinaceous. 
lay the moft eggs, from eight to twenty ; Benigna circa hoc natura, 
innvcua et efcuknta animalia fcecunda generavit, is a fine obfervation 
of Pliny. With exception to the Bustard, a bird that hangs be- 
tween the Gallinaceous and the Waders, which lays only two. 

The Columbine order lays but two white eggs; but the do- 
meftic kind, breeding almoft every month, fupports the remark of 
the Roman naturalift. 

All of the Passerine order lay from four to fix eggs, except Passerinj-; 
the Titmice and the Wren, which lay fifteen or eighteen, and the 
Goatfucker, which lays only two. 

The Struthious order, which confifts but of two genera, dif- Struthious. 
agree much in the number of eggs: the Ostrich laying many, 
-as far as fifty; the Dodo but one. 

The Cloven-footed Water-fowl, or Waders, lay, in general, Waders. 
four eggs. The Crane and the Norfolk. Plover feldom more 
than two. All thofe of the Snipe and Plover genus are of a 
dirty white, or olive, fpotted with black, and fcarcely to be diftin- 
guifhed in the holes they lay in. The bird called the Land Rail 
(an ambiguous fpecies) lays from fifteen to twenty. Of birds with 
pinnated feet, the Coot lays feven or eight eggs, and fometimes 
more. Grebes from four to eight, and thofe white. 

The Web-footed, or Swimmers, differ in the number of their Web-pootei>. 
eggs. Thofe which border on the order of Waders, lay few eggs ; 
the Avoset, two; the Flamingo, three; the Albatross, the 
Auks, and Guillemots, lay only one egg apiece: the eggs of 

D the 

xviii PREFACE. 

the two laftj are of a fize flrangely large in proportion to the bulk 
of the birds. They are commonly of a pale green color, fpotted 
and ftriped fo varioufly, that not two are alike ; which gives every 
individual the means of diftinguifhing its own, on the naked rock,, 
where fuch multitudes afiemble. 
Divers, only two. 

Terns and Gulls lay about four eggs, of a dirty olive, fpotted 
with black. 

Ducks lay from eight to twenty eggs ; the eggs of all the genus 
are of a pale green, or white, and unipotted. 

Pinguins lay two eggs *:; white, and remarkably round. 
Of the Pelican genus, the Gannet lays but one egg ; the 
Shags, or Corvorants, fix or feven, all white; the laft the molt 
oblong of eggs. 

A minute account of the Eggs of birds, merits a treatife of it- 
felf, or fhould follow the defcription of each fpecies. This is only 
meant to fhew the great conformity nature obferves in the lhape 
and colors of the eggs of congenerous birds ; and alfo, that fhe 
keeps the fame uniformity of color in the eggs, as in the plumage 
©f the birds they belong to. 

Zinanni publifhed, at Venice, in 1737, a treatife on eggs, illus- 
trated with accurate figures of 106 eggs. Mr. Reyger of Dant- 
zick publifhed, in 1766, a pofthumous work by Klein, with 11 
plates, elegantly coloured : But much remains for future 

• Penrcfe'sVoy. Falkland Ifles, 32, 




Considering the many fyftems that have been offered to the 
public of late years *, I hope I fhall not be accufed of national 
partiality, in giving the preference to that compofed by Mr. Ray 
in 1667, and afterwards publifhed in 1678. It would be unfair 
to conceal the writer, from whom our great countryman took 
the original hint of forming that fyftem, which has fince proved 
the foundation of all that has been compofed fince that period. 

It was a Frenchman, Belon of Mans, who firft attempted 
to range birds according to their natures, and performed 
great matters, confidering the unenlightened age he lived in; 
for his book was publifhed in 1555. His arrangement of 
rapacious birds is as judicious as that of the latefl writers ; 
for his fecond chapter treats of Vultures, Falcons,, 
and Owls j in the two next, he pafies over to the Web- 
footed Water-fowl, and to the Cloven-footed ; in the fifth, he 
includes the Gallinaceous and Struthious, but mixes with 
them the Plovers, Buntings, and Larks j in the fixth are 
the Pies, Pigeons, and Thrushes ; and the feventh takes in 
the reft of the Passerine order. 

Notwithstanding the great defedts that every naturalift 
will at once fee in the arrangement of the lefier birds of 
this writer, yet he will obferve a re&itude of intention in 

* By M. Barrere of Perpignan in 174$, Mr. Kltin in 1750, Mr. Moebring in 1753, 
M. Brijfbn in 1760, and by Linnaus at different periods. Mr. Ray formed (in 
conjun&ion with Mr. Willughby) his tables of animals, in the winter 1667, 
for the ule of Bifhop Wilkin's real cbaradcr, 

D 2 general, 


general, and a fine notion of fyftem, which was left to the 
following age to mature and bring to perfection. Accord- 
ingly, Mr. Ray, and his illuftrious pupil the Hon. Fra. 
Willughby, affumed the plan ; but, with great judgment, 
flung into their proper ftations and proper genera, thofe which 
Belon had confufedly mixed together. They formed the great 
divifion of Terrestrial and Aquatic birds j they made every 
fpecies occupy their proper place, confulting at once exterior 
form, and natural habit. They could not bear the affected 
intervention of aquatic birds in the midft of terreftrial birds. 
They placed the laft by themfelves, clear and diftinct from thofe 
whofe haunts and ceconomy were fo different. 

Various attempts have been made to alter this fyftem of 
our countrymen. It is a difagreeable and invidious talk to 
expofe the defects of other methodifts, who may have, in many 
refpects, great merit. I leave that to the peevifh malignancy of 
the minute critics j therefore fhall only acknowlege the fources 
from which I draw the materials of the prefent work, and give 
each their due fhare of merit. 

Mr Ray's general plan is fo judicious, that to me it feems 
fcarcely poffible to make any change in it for the better ; yet, 
notwithstanding he was in a manner the founder of fyftematic 
Zoology, later difcoveries have made a few improvements on his 
labors. My candid friend Linn^us did not take it amifs, that 
I, in part, neglected his example j for I permit the Land- 
fowl to follow one another, undivided by the Water-fowl, 
the Grail* and Anferes of his fyftem ; but, in my generical ar- 
rangement, I moft punctually attend to the order he has given 


m his feveral divifions, except in thofe of his Anferes, and a few 
of his GralU. For, after the manner of M. Brijfon, I make a 
diftincl order of Water-fowl with pinnated feet, placing them 
between the Waders or Cloven-footed Water-fowl and the 
Web-footed. The Ostrich, and Land-birds with wings ufelefs 
for flight, I place as a diftinct order. The Trumpeter (Pfo- 
phia Linnxi) and the Bustards, I place at the end of the Gal- 
linaceous tribe. All are Land-birds. The firft multiparous, 
like the generality of the Gallinaceous tribe ; the laft grani- 
vorous, fwift runners, avoiders of wet-places ; and both have 
bills fomewhat arched. It muft be confefTed, that both have 
legs naked above the knees i and the laft, like the Waders, lay 
but few eggs. They feem ambiguous birds that have affinity 
with each order j and it is hoped, that each naturalift may be 
indulged the toleration of placing them as fuits his own opinion. 
Before I conclude, let me not pafs over the afliftance received in 
fbme of my definitions from Mr. Scopoli, an ornithologift of Car- 
niola, who, in 1768, favored the world with a moft elaborate ac- 
count of the birds that had fallen within his obfervation. Thus, 
I flatter myfelf, I have given every naturalift, I am indebted 
to, his due. 

Miferum eji aliorum incumber e fam<e. 

Ne collapfa ruant fubdufiis tetla Columnis. 


TABLE of ARRANGEMENT, with the correfpondent 
ORDERS and GENERA m the Systema Nature of 



Divifion I. « 

Order I. Rapacious, 
II. Pies. 

III. Gallinaceous. 

IV. Columbine. 
V. PafTerine. 

VI. Struthious. 

Accipitres Linnet. 




C Gallina;, 
t Grallae, 

Divifion II. 

fOrderVII. Cloven-footed, or 1 ^ „ 
\xt j J'Gralla;. 

Waders. j 

VIII. Pinnated feet. f^^ 
£ Grallae. 

IX. Web-footed. j^ 8 ' 
t Grallae. 

D I V. I. 


i Vulture Vultur 3 Owl Strix 

a Falcon Falco 

Order II. 

( xxiii ) 

Order II. PIES. 

4 Shrike 

5 Parrot 

6 Toucan 

7 Motmot 

8 Hornbill 

9 Beefeater 
io Ani 

ii Wattle 

12 Crow 

13 Roller 

14 Oriole 

15 Grakle 

16 Paradife 













17 Curucui 

18 Barbet 

19 Cuckoo 

20 Wryneck 

21 Woodpecker 

22 Jacamar 

23 Kingsfifher 

24 Nuthatch 

25 Tody 

26 Bee-eater 

27 Hoopoe 

28 Creeper 

29 Honey fucker 














30 Cock 

31 Turkey 

32 Pintado 
22 Curaflb 



34 Peacock Pavo 

35 Pheafant 

36 Grous 

37 Partridge 

38 Trumpeter 


29 Buftard Otis 


40 Pigeon Columba 

10 Ord. V, 

{ xxiv ) 



49 Flycatcher 



50 Lark 



51 Wagtail 



52 Warblers 



$2 Manakin 



54 Titmoufe 



55 Swallow 



56 Goatfucker 


41 Stare 

42 Thrufh 

43 Chatterer 

44 Coly 

45 Groibeak 

46 Bunting 

47 Tanager 

48 Finch 

57 Dodo Didus 58 Oftrich Struthio 

D I 

V. II. 

Ord. VII. 



59 Spoonbill 


68 Sandpiper 


60 Screamer 


6^ Plover 


61 Jabiru 


7oOyftercatcher Hasmatopus 

62 Boatbill 


71 Jacana 


62 Heron 


72 Pratincole 


€4 Umbre 

Scopus Brijf. 

73 Rail 


65 Ibis 


74 Sheath-Bill 

66 Curlew 


75 Gallinule 


67 Snipe 


Ord. VIII, 

( xxv ) 


78 Grebe Colymbus 

76 Phalarope Tringa 

77 Coot Fulica 

Ord. IX. W E B - F O O T E D. 

79 Avofet 

80 Courier 

81 Flammant 

82 Albatrofs 

83 Auk 

84 Guillemot 

85 Diver 
85 Skimmer 
87 Tern 

Recur viroftra 

Currira Brijf. 








88 Gull 

89 Petrel 

90 Merganfer 

91 Duck 

92 Pinguin 

93 Pelican 

94 Tropic 

95 Darter 


C Diomedea 


Explanation of the Figure on the Title-Pagc. 

I Baftard wing, Alula fpuria. 

2. LefTer coverts of the wings, Tetlrices prima. 

3 Greater coverts, Tetlrices fecund*. 

4 Quill feathers, Primores. 

5. Secondary feathers, Secundaria. 

6 Tertials. 

7 Coverts of the tail, Uropygium. 

8 Vent feathers, Crijfum. 

9 Tail feathers, Reprices. 

D I V. 





Bill, ftrait, hooked only at the end j edges cultrated, bafe co- I. Vulturi. 

vered with a thin fkin. 
Nostrils, differing in different fpecies. 
Tongue, large and flefhy. 
Head, cheeks, chin, and often neck, either naked or covered 

only with down or fhort hairs ; the neck retractile. 
Claw, often hanging over the bread. 
Legs and Feet, covered with great fcales ; the firft joint of the 

middle toe connected to that of the outmoft, by a ftrong 

Claws, large, little hooked, and very blunt. 
Insides of the wings covered with down. 
King of the Vultures. Bearded and crefled Vultures. Edw. II. Examtli. 

CVI. CCXI. Bengal and Secretary Vultures. Latham's Syn. 

of Birds. PI. i, 2. 
The yw\> of Arijlotk, who mentions two fpecies. 
Vultur of Linnazus, genus I. who enumerates VIII fpecies. The 

Vultur and Vaniour of Brijfon, who defcribes XII fpecies. M. 

de Buff on VIII. Mr. Ray VIII. 

E 2 No 


No Vultures north of the Baltic, none in Great Britain. Various 
fpecies in Europe, Afia, Africa, and America, as low as Terra 
del Fuego. 

A fluggifh, ungenerous race ; prey oftener on dead animals, and 
even putrid carcafes, than on living creatures. Their fenfe of 
fmelling moft exquifite. Collect in flocks from afar; directed 
to their prey by the fagacity of their noftrils. Fly flowly and 
heavily. Are moft greedy, and voracious to a proverb. Are 
not timid, for they prey in the midft of cities, undaunted by 

II. Falcon. Bill, hooked; covered at the bafe with a naked membrane, or 

Nostrils, fmall, oval, placed in the cere. 

Tongue, large, flefhy, and often cleft at the end. 

Head and Neck, covered with feathers. 

Legs and Feet, fcaly ; middle toe connected, from its firft joint, 
to that of the outmoft, by a ftrong membrane. 

Claws, large, much hooked, and very ftiarp ; that of the out- 
moft toe the left. 

The Female larger and ftronger than the male. 
Example. Golden Eagle, Br. Zool. fol. tab. A. Falcon gentil. Br. Zool. I. 

tab. XXI. Chinefe. E. N. Zealand, F. Latham's Syn. of Birds. 

PI. 3, 4- 

A carnivorous, rapacious race ; not gregarious ; quick-fighted : 

Generally fly high. Build in lofty places ; except a few fpe- 
cies which neftle on the ground. 
Eagles and the larger kind of Falcons do not lay more than four 
eggs ; fome of the lefler, fuch as the Kejlril, lay fix or feven ; 



the Eagles, properly fo called, feldom more than two or three : 
Drink feldom j the juices of their animal-food preventing 
thirft. Capable of enduring very long abftinence. Very long 
lived. Are clamorous ; their note puling and plaintive. 
Strike their prey with their feet. Their excrements white and 
fluid. Vomit up the indigefted hair or feathers of their prey, 
in form of a round ball. Vary in the color of their plumage 
at different ages ; fo the fpecies are often unnecefiarily multi- 
plied by Ornithologifts. Inhabit every climate. 
Mr. Ray and M. Brijfon feparate the Eagles from the Falcons. 
The firft has VIII fpecies of Eagles, and XXV of Falcons or 
Hawks. The laft, XV of Eagles, and XXXVII of Falcons. 
lLiNN^us,who, with much propriety, places both in one genus, 
enumerates thirty-two. Mr. Ray's divifion of the fluggifh, 
and of the more active and generous, a very judicious one. 

Bill, hooked ; bafe covered with briftlesj no cere. jj It 0w l. 

Nostrils, oblong. 

Tongue, cleft at the end. 

Eves, very large and protuberant, furrounded by a circle of 

Head, very large and round ; full of feathers. 
Ears, large and open. 
Outmost Toe, verfatile, or capable of being turned back, fo 

as to aft with the back toe. 
Claws, hooked and fharp. 
Eagle Owl, Br. Zool. I. tab. XXIX. Owls. Latham's Syn. of Ex. 

Birds. PI. 5. 
A ntfturnal Bird, preys in the evening and by night j often flies 



along the ground in fearch of prey ; carnivorous ; quick of 
hearing ; winks in the day ; makes a hooting noife in the 
night ; fometimes a fqueaking. Snores loud. Builds in 
rocks, in hollow trees, or ruined edifices. Lays not more 
than five eggs. Inhabits every climate. 
Mr. Ray divides this genus into two ; thofe with and thofe with- 
out Horns ; enumerates III fpecies with, and VIII without. 
M. Briffbn ftyles the firft Afio, and has IX ; the other Strix, 
and has XI fpecies. Buffon XV. 



P I E S. 

P I C JE Linneei, 

Bill, ftrait, hooked only at the end ; near the end of the upper IV - Shirke. 
mandible a fharp procefs. No cere. 

Nostrils, round, covered with ftiff briflles. 

Tongue, jagged at the end. 

Toes divided to the origin. 

Tail cuneiform. 

Butcher Birds, Br. Zool. fol. tab. C. I. Br. Zool. I. tab. XXXIII. Ex. 

Carnivorous or infeftivorous ; kill fmall birds by ftrangling, 
or by crufhing their fkull with their bills, then pull them to 
pieces, and flick the fragments on thorns ; do the fame by in- 
fects. Bold, noify, and querulous. Build in low bufhes. 
Lay fix eggs. 

The genus that connects the rapacious Birds and Pies ; agree- 
ing with the firft in the ftrength and crookednefs of the bill, 
and its predatory life ; with the laft, in the form of the toes } 
the tongue, and tail. Nearly related to the Magpie : The 
French ftyle it Pie-Griefcbe. 

Different fpecies found in the new and old world, and in all cli- 
mates, except within the Arttic circle. 

The Butcher Birds or Skrikes of Mr. Ray, who defcribes IV 

fpecies. The Lanius of Linn^us, who has XXVI fpecies. 

10 The 


The Lanius and Pie-Griefche of Briffon, who reckons up XXVL, 
Buffon XIV. 
I reject the compound name of Butcher-Bird, and retain the old 
Englifh name of Shrike, from the noife. 

V. Parrot. Bill, hooked from the bafe : Upper mandible moveable. 

Nostrils, round, placed in the bafe of the bill. 

Tongue, broad, blunt at the end. 

Head, large j crown flat. 

Legs, fhort. Toes, two backward, two forward. 

I*. Maccaw Edw. CLVIII. Parrot, CLXVI. 

Gregarious, clamorous ; the wild note loud and harfh. Very 
docile, imitative of founds ; imitates the human fpeech. 
Climbs by help of the bill and feet. Makes ufe of the feet as 
hands to convey meat to the mouth, turning the legs out- 
ward. Frugivorous : Can crack the hardeft kernels. Breeds 
in hollow trees. Makes no neft : Lays two or three white 
eggs : Inhabits within the Tropics, Africa, Afia, and Ame- 
rica ; a few are found as far North as Carolina : and South as 
the Straits of Magellan. 
Pfittacus of Linn^us, and Brijfon, IV. 182. The firft has 
XLVII. the laft XC fpecies. 

VI. Toucan. Bill, moft difproportionably large ; convex and carinated at 

top, and bending at the end ; hollow -, very light, ferrated at 

the edges. 
Nostrils, fmall and round, placed clofe to the head, and hid 

in the feathers. 
Tongue, long and narrow, feathered at the edges. 
Toes, two forward, and two backward. 


PIES, 7 

Toucans Edw. LXIV. CCXXXIX, £ X< 

A genus confined to America, within the Tropics. Feeds on 
fruits: Breeds in hollow trees. Is very noify ; eafily made 
Mr Ray, milled by the name of Brafilian Pie, places it with the 
Magpie. LinnjEus calls it Rhamphajlos, a 'Pay.<po<;, a broad 
fword, from the form of its bill, and has VIII fpecies. Brijfon, 
IV. 407. retains the Brafilian name Toucan, and has XII 

Bill, ftrong, (lightly incurvated ; ferrated at the edges. VII. MOTMOT. 

Nostrils, covered with feathers. 

Tail, cuneiform : The two middle feathers much longer than 

the others : Near the ends quite deftitute of webs. The webs 

at the ends fubovated. 
Toes, three before, one behind; the fore toes clofely united al- 

moft their whole length. 

Brafilian faw-billed Roller. Edw. CCCXXVI. Ex." 

Inhabits S. America. 
Ramphajlos Momota of Linn^us. 

Momotus of Brijfon, IV. 464. who has II fpecies. I retain the 
Mexican name in Fernandez hift. av. Nov. Hifp. 52. 

Great bending Bill, oft-times a large protuberance refembling VIII. HORN- 

another bill on the upper mandible. Edges jagged. 
Nostrils, fmall, round, placed behind the bafe of the bill. 

F Legs 


Legs, fcaly : Toes, three forward, one backward : The middle 
connected to the outmoft, as far as the third joint ; to the in- 
moft, as far as the firft. 

Ex. Several Bills Edw. CCLXXXI. Wil. em. tab. XVII. A fpecies 

with a horn pointing forward, and wattles under the chin, en- 
graven in Moore 's travels into the inland parts of Africa, p. 108. 

Found in th£ Indian iflands. 

Buceros of Linn^us, a j3«uj an ox, and x£fa? a horn, from the form 
of the bill. Hydrocorax of Brijfon, II. 565, or Water Raven, 
from its being fuppofed to inhabit watry places. 

Linnaeus has IV fpecies. Brijfon V. 

IX. BEEF- Bill, ftrong, thick, ftrait, nearly fquare. Upper mandible a little 

protuberant j on the lower, a large angle. 
Toes, three before, one behind. The middle connected to the 

outmoft as far as the firft joint. 

**« Le pique Bceuf. Brijfon II. tab. XLII. 

Inhabits Senegal. Only one known fpecies. 

Bnphaga of Linnaeus and Brijfon II. 437. a (Sou? an ox, and tpayem 

to eat, becaufe it picks holes in the backs of cattle, to get at 

the Larva of infects depofited there. 

X. Afil. Bill, comprefTed, greatly arched, half oval, thin, cultrated at top. 
Nostrils, round. 
Toes, two backward, two forward. 
Ten feathers in the Tail. 



Razor-bilPd Blackbird. Catejhy Carol, app. III. the feet faultily 
exprefied. Le Bout de Petun, Brijfon IV. tab. XVIII. 

Inhabits South America: Within the Tropics. 

Crotophagus of Linn^us and Brijfon IV. 177. from KjoJwk, becaufe 
this genus feeds on ticks. Only II fpecies. Mr. Ray places it 
at the end of the Parrots. I retain the Brafilian name Ani. 


Bill, ftrong, thick, rounded at top; convex. 

Nostrils, covered partly above with a flap; and near their ends 
with a tuft of feathers : On each fide of the bafe of the bill, t 
red, thin, flelhy membrane, or Wattle, of a round form. 

Tongue, truncated, fplit, ciliated. 

Tail, long and cuneiform. 

Legs and Feet, ftrong: the firft carinated behind. 

Toes, large; three forward, -W^- backward. Claws, great and 
crooked, efpecially that of the hind toe. 

A non-defcript genus, as yet difcovered only in New Zeland. 


Bill, ftrong, upper mandible a little convex. Edges cul- XII. CROW. 

Nostrils, covered with briftles reflected over them. 
Tongue, divided at the end. 
Toes, three forward, one backward, the middle joined to the out- 

moft as far as the firft joint. 

Royfton Crow, Br. Zool. fol. tab. D. I. Ex. 

Different fpecies found in every climate : clamorous : promifcuous 

feeders : build in trees : lay about fix eggs. 
Corvus of Linn^us, who mentions XIX fpecies. 
Brijfon divides this genus into Coracias, or the Chough ; Corvus, 

Fa or 





or Crow j Pica, or Magpye ; Garrulus, or Jay ; Nucifraga, or 
Nutbreaker ; including XXIII fpecies. 

Bill, flrait, bending a little towards the end, edges cukrated.. 

Nostrils, narrow and naked. 

Toes, three forward ; divided to thei origin ; one backward. 

Blue Jay Edw. CCCXXVI. Roller Br. Zool. II. App. Europe, Afia, 
Africa, and the hot parts of Ameriia. A genus nearly related 
to the Crow. Thence Linnjeus calls it Coracias : a word of 
Arijtotle's, applied only to what we call the Cornijh Chough. 
Kotfaxia? Qowixogvyxoe, Hifi. an. lib. IX. c. 24. 

Coracias of Linnaeus, who has VI fpecies. Galgulus of Briffon, 
who has X fpecies. 

XIV. ORIOLE. Bill, flrait, conic, very fharp pointed, edges cukrated, inclining 

inwards. Mandibles of equal length. 
Nostrils, fmall, placed at the bafe of the bill, and partly covered. 
Tongue, divided at the end. 
Toes, three forward, one backward: the middle joined near the 

bafe to the outmoft one behind. 


Redwing Starling Catejby Carol. 1. XIII. 

In general, inhabitants of America. 

A numerous race, gregarious, noify, frugivorous, granivorous, 

voracious : often have penfile nefls. 
LinnjEus enumerates, under the title of Oriolus, XX fpecies, but 

fome belong to the Turdine or Thrufh kind. Brijfon II. 85. 

calls this genus Ifterus, and has XXX fpecies. The genuine 

Oriolus is a Thrufh. 


PIES. 15 

Bill, convex, thick, comprefled a little on the fides, cultrated. XV. GRAKLE. 

Nostrils, fmall, near the bafe of the bill; often near the edge. 

Tongue, entire; rather Iharp at the end. 

Toes, three forward, one backward ; the middle connected at the 

bafe to the outmoft. 
Claws, hooked and iharp. 

Mino, Edw. XVII. Chinefe Starling. Edw. XIX. Ex. 

Inhabits Afia and America. 

Gracula of Linnaeus, VIII fpecies. Iclerus, Pica, and Turdus of 

None of Linnjeus's fpecies can be the Graculus of Pliny, or our 

Chough. For all his are Afiatic, African, or American. 

Bill, (lightly bending. The bafe covered with velvet-like feathers. XVI. PARADISE, 

Nostrils, fmall, and concealed by the feathers. 

Tail, confifting of ten feathers ; two very long naked fhafts, 

fpringing from above the rump. 
Legs and Feet, very large and ftrong; three toes forward, one 

backward: the middle connected as far as the firft joint of the 

Claws, large, hooked, and iharp. 

Birds of Paradife, Edw. CX. CXI. E X> 

Floats on the air, and' often flies fwiftly backwards and forwards, 
I • like the Swallow ; often lights, and perches on trees ; feeding 

on fruits, and even fmall birds. 
Inhabits New Guinea and the Molucca IJles. Paradifea of Lin- 
naeus, III fpecies. Manucodiata of Brijfon II. 130. only II 
fpecies. More fince difcovered, 


i2 PIE S, 

%YU. CURUCUI Bill, ftiort, thick, and convex. 

Nostrils, covered with ftiff briftles. 


Toes, two backward, two forward. 

Legs, feathered down to the toes. 

Tail, confifts of twelve feathers . 

Ex- Yellow-bellied green Cuckow, Edw. CCCXXXL 

Fafcjated Couroucou. Ind. Zocl. tab. V. 

Probably have the manners of the Woodpeckers. 

Inhabits South America. 

Oregon of Linnaeus, III fpecies. The fame of Brijfon, IV. 164. 
has VI fpecies. The reafon for the name Trogon feems to be, 
becaufe Pliny has fuch a name after the Picus. As the genus 
is Bra/Man, I retain the name of the country. 

XVIIL BARBET. Bill, ftrong, ftrait, bending a little towards the point. Bafe co- 
vered with ftrong briftles, pointing downwards. 
Nostrils, hid in the feathers. 

Toes, two backward, two forward, divided to their origin. 
Tail, confifting of ten weak feathers. 

Ex. Yellow Woodpecker, with red fpots, Edwards, CCCXXXIII. 

Inhabits Seutb America and the Indian IJlands. 
Bucco of Linnaeus and Briffon IV. 91. The flrft has I. fpecies. 
The laft V. Briffon ftyles it Bucco from the fulnefs of the 
cheeks ; Barbu from its briftles, a fort of beard, from which I 
form the generical name Barbet. 

c Bili* 

PIES. 13 

Bill, weak, a little bending. XIX - CUCKOO, 

Nostrils, bounded by a fmall rim. 

Tongue, fhort, pointed. 

Toes, two forward, two backward. 

Tail, cuneated ; confifts of ten foft feathers. 

Cuckoo, Br. Zool. fol. tab. G. G. I. Br. Zool. I. tab. XXXVI. Ex, 

Inhabits every climate. 

Guculus of LinnjEus and Brijfon, IV. 104. The one has XXII 
fpecies; the other XXVIII. 

The xoxxvZ, and Coccyx of the Ancients, a word formed from the 
found of the European fpecies. Cuculus is only ufed in an op- 
probrious fenfe. 

Bill, weak, (lender, pointed. XX. WRYNECK, 

Nostrils, large and oval, near the ridge of the bill. 

Tongue, very long, cylindric, very flender, and terminated by a 

hard point, mifiile. 
Toes, two forward, two backward. 
Tail, confirming of ten even and foft feathers. 

Wryneck, Br. Zool. fol. tab. G. Br. ZooL I. tab. XXXVI. Ex, 

Its manners, vide Br. Zool. 

Inhabits Europe and Bengal. Only one fpecies known. Iuy£ of 
Ariftotle, Jynx of Pliny, Linnaeus, and BriJ/on, vol. iv. 3. 

Bill, ftrait, ftrong, angular; cuneated at the end. XXI. WOOD- 

Nostrils, covered with bridles reflected down. • PECKER. 

Tongue, very long, fiender, cylindric, bony, hard, and jagged at 
the end, mifiile. 


14 PIE S. 

Toes, two forward, two backward. 

Tail, confifting often hard, ftiff, fharp-pointed feathers. 

Ex. Woodpeckers, Br. Zool. fol. tab. E. Br. Zool. I. tab. XXXVII. 

The manners, vide Br. Zool. 
Inhabits all the Continents. 
Afu9xoA«7r7)]f or Oak- rapper of Arifiotle, Picus Martins of Pliny, Pi- 

«« of Linnaeus and Brijfon, IV. 8. Linn/eus has XXI. Brijon 

XXXI fpecies. 

XXII.JACAMAR Bill, long, ftrait, fharp pointed, quadrangular. 
Tongue, fhort. 

Legs, feathered before to the Toes. 

Toes, difpofed two forward, two backward. The two foremoft 
clofely connected together. 

Ex. Jacamiciri Edw. CCCXXXIV. 

Inhabits S. America. 

Alcedo Galbula of Linnaeus. Galbula of Briffbn, IV. 86. who has 
II fpecies. I retain his name from the Braflian Jacamiciri. 

XXIII. KINGS- Bill, long, ftrong, ftrait, fharp pointed. 
Nostrils, fmall, and hid in the feathers. 
Tongue, fhort, broad, fharp pointed. 

Legs, fhort; three toes forward, one backward : three lower joints 
of the middle toe joined clofely to thofe of the outmoft. 

Ex, Kingsfifher, Br. Zool. fol. tab. I. Br. Zool. I. tab. XXXVIII. 

Found in all the quarters of the world. Flies fwiftly, ftrong, 
and direct. All the fpecies do not haunt rivers, nor prey on 


I E S. 

fifh. 'AXmuv of Ariftotle, the Halcyon of Pliny, Alcedo of Lin- 
naeus, Ifpida of Briffon, IV 47 1. The firft gives us XV fpecies. 
Brijfon XXVI. 


Bill, ftrait ; on the lower mandible a fmall angle. 

Nostrils, fmall, covered with feathers reflected over them. 

Tongue, fhort, horny at the end, and jagged. 

Toes, three forward, one backward. The middle toe joined clofely 
«t the bafe to both the outmoft. Back toe as large as the mid- 
dle toe. 

Its manners, vide Br. Zool. 

Nuthatch Br. Zoel.fol. tab. H. Br. Zool. I. tab. XXXVIII. 
Inhabits Europe, Afia, America. 

Sitta of Linn^us and Briffon III. 588. he defcribes V fpecies, 
Linn^us II. Ariftotle's Qn1* not eafily determinable. 

Bill, thin, deprefied, broad, bafe befet with bridles. 
Nostrils, fmall. 

Toes, three forward, one backward, connected like thofe of the 

Green-fparrow, Edw. CXXI. 

Inhabits the hot parts of America. 

Todus of Linnaeus and Briffon IV. 528. who enumerate II fpecies. 

The name firft given it by Dr. Brown, I fuppofe, from Todi, 

fmall birds. 

G Bill, 





i6 PIES. 

X EATe B r' F " BlLt ' <l uadran g ular > a little incurvated, (harp pointed. 
Nostrils, fmall, placed near the bafe. 
Tongue, (lender. 

Toes, three forward, one backward : The three lower joints of the 
middle toe clofely joined to thofe of the outmoft. 

Ex, Indian Bee-eater, Edw. CLXXXIII. 

Feeds on Bees, which it catches in its flight j from which the- 

Englijh name. 
Inhabits Southern Europe, Afia, Africa, and America. 
Merops of Linnaeus, Apiafier of Brijfon, IV. 532. The firft has 
VII fpecies, the laft XIII. 

XXVII.HOOPOE Bill, long, (lender, and bending. 

Nostrils, fmall, placed near the bale. 
Tongue, fhort, fagittal. 

Toes, three forward, one backward ; middle toe clofely united at 
the bafe to the outmoft. 

Ex , Hoopoe, Br. Zool. fol. tab. L. Br. Zool. I. tab. XXXIX. 

Inhabits Europe and AJia. 

Upupa of Linnaeus. Upupa and Promerops of Brijfon, II 456. 460. 
Linnaeus has III fpecies. Brijfon I of the firft, V of the laft. 

XXVIII. Bill, very (lender, weak, incurvated. 
CREEPER. Nostrils, fmall. 

Tongue, not fo long as the bill; hard, and (harp at the point. 
Toes, three forward, one backward ; large back toe, and long 
hooked claws. 

3 Creeper, 

PIES. 17 

Creeper, Br. Zool. fol. tab. K. Br. Zool. I. XXXIX. According Ex. 

to its name, creeps up and down the trunks and branches of 

trees, feeding on infects, their eggs and larva. 
Inhabits Europe, AJia, Africa, and America. 
Certhia of Linnaeus and Briffon, III. 602. The firft has XXV 

fpecies; the laft XXXII. 

Bill, (lender and weak ; in fome ftrait, in others incurvated. XXIX. HONEV- 


Nostrils, minute. 

Tongue, very long, formed of two conjoined cylindric tubes ; 


Toes, three forward, one backward. 

Tail, confifts often feathers. 

Long tailed red humming bird, Edw. XXXII. which is the fort E 

with crooked bills, called by Briffon, Polytmi. 

White bellied humming bird, Edw. XXXV. or the kind with 
ftrait bills : The Mellifuga of Briffon. 

Feeds on the fweet juices of flowers, which it fucks out with its 
tubular tongue, hanging in the air on its wings. 

Inhabits America, efpecially the warm parts : A numerous genus. 

Trochilus of Linnaeus ; Polyttnus and Mellifuga of Briffon. Lin- 
naeus has XXII fpecies; Briffon XVI of the Polytmus, XX of 
the Mellifuga, The old Englifh name was Humming-bird; which 
I now change to Honey-Sucker. 


[ i8 ] 



Heavy bodies, fliort wings, very convex j ftrong, arched, fhort 
bills : The upper mandible fhutting over the edges of the 
lower. The flefh delicate, and of excellent nutriment; ftrong 
legs; toes joined at the bafe, as far as the firft joint, by a ftrong 
membrane. Claws broad, formed for fcratching up the ground. 
More than twelve feathers in the tail. 

Granivorous, feminivorous, infeftivorrms, fwift runners, of fhort 
flight ; often polygamous, very prolific, lay their eggs on the 
bare ground. Sonorous, querulous, and pugnacious. 

Or, with bills (lightly convex ; granivorous, feminivorous, infec- 
tivorous ; long legs, naked above the knees : The genus that 
connects the land and the water-fowl. Agreeing with the 
cloven-footed water-fowl in the length and nakednefs of the 
legs, and the fewnefs of its eggs : Difagreeing in place, food,, 
and form of bill, and number of feathers in the tail. 


l 9 

Bill, very convex, Ihort, and ftrong. XXX. COCK. 

Nostrils, bodied in a flefhy fubftance. 
Tongue, cartilaginous, fharp, entire. 
Head, adorned with a Comb, or elevated ferrated flefh. 
Spurs on the legs. 

Tail, confifting of fourteen feathers ; that of the male, fickle- 

To be found in every farm-yard. Ex. 

Its native country India and its ifles. 

Domefticated every where. 

Phajianus of Linnaeus, who clafTes it with the Pheafant, and has 

VI fpecies. Gallus of Briffon, I. 165. who enumerates V, but 

they are only varieties. 

Bill, convex, fhort and ftrong. XXXI. TURKEY. 

Nostrils, open, pointed at one end, lodged in a membrane. 
Tongue, floped on both fides towards the end, and pointed. 
Heab and Neck, covered with a naked tuberofe flefh, with along 
flefhy appendage hanging from the bafe of the upper mandible. 
Tail, broad, confifts of eighteen feathers, extenfible. 

Unknown to none. Ex. 

Native of North America only : Domefticated in moft countries. 
Meleagris of Linn^us, and Gallo-pavo of Briffon, I. 158. Lin- 
naeus has III, Briffon II fpecies. 






Bill, convex, ftrong, and ftiort ; at the bafe a carunculated cere, 

in which the 
Nostrils are lodged. 

Head and Neck, naked, (lightly befet with briftles. 
A Horn, reflected and large, on the head. 
Long Pointed Wattles, hanging from the cheeks. 
Tail, fhort, pointing downwards. 

Too common to need a reference. 

Its native place Africa. 

Numida of LiNNi^us, who has I. fpecies. Mekagris of Brifon, 

I. 176. who has likewife I. He calls it in French, La Peintade, 

a name I retain. 



Bill, convex, ftrong, and thick, the bafe covered with a cere, 
often mounted by a large nob. 

Nostrils, fmall, lodged in the cere. 

Head, fometimes adorned with a creft of feathers, curling for- 

Tail, large, ftrait. 

Curafib, and Cufhew-bird, Edw. CCXCV. 
Inhabits South America. 

Crax of Linnaeus and Brijfon, I. 296. But the laft claffes them 
with the Pheafant, and has VI fpecies, Linnaeus III. 

XXXIV. PEA- Bill, convex, ftrong, and ftiort. 


Nostrils, large. 

Head, fmall, crefted. 

Spurs on the legs. 



Tail, very long, broad, expanfible, confifting of a double range 
of feathers, adorned with rich ocellated fpots. 

Common Peacock, frequent in moft parts. The Peacock Phea- Ex. 

fant, Edw. LXVII. 
The native place India, Japan, and China. 
Pavo of LiNNiEUS, and Phafianus of Brijfon, I. 281. who reckons 

IV fpecies of Peacocks, Linnaeus III. 

Bill, convex, fhort, and ftrong. XXXV. PHEA- 

Nostrils, finall. SANT> 

Tail, very long, cuneiform, bending downwaads. 

Painted Pheafant, Edw. LXVIII. 
Inhabits Afia and South America. 

Phafianus of Linnaeus and Brijfon I. 262. who has (including 
Peacocks and Curafibas) XVI fpecies, Linnaeus VI. 

Bill, convex, ftrong, and ftiort. XXXVI. GROUs. 

A naked fcarlet fkin above each Eye. 
Nostrils, fmall, and hid in the feathers. 
Tongue, pointed at the end. 

Legs, ftrong, feathered to the toes; and fometimes to the nails. 
The toes of thofe with naked feet pectinated on each fide. 

Grous, Br. Zool. fol. tab. M. 3. Br. Zool. I. tab. XLIII. *a 

Inhabits the mountains or woods of Europe, northern and eaftern 
Afia, and North America* 




Tetrao pedibus hirfutis of Linnaeus, who has IX fpecies. La- 
gopus of Brijfon, I. 181. who has XII. 

XXXVII. PAR- Bill, convex, ftrong, and fhort. 
TRIDGE. ]STo naked fkin above the Eyes. 

Nostrils, covered above with a callous prominent rim. 
Legs, naked, tetradactylous. Exception, two fpecies of Quails. 
Tail, fhort. 

Ex. Partridge, Br. Zool. fol. tab. M. V. 

Inhabits the cultivated parts of the world. 
Tetrao pedibus nudis of Linnaeus, who has XI fpecies. 
of Brijfon, who has XXI. 




Bill, fhort, upper mandible a little convex. 

Nostrils, oblong, funk, and pervious. 

Tongue, cartilaginous, flat, torn, or fringed at the end. 

Legs, naked a little above the knees. 

Toes, three before ; one fmall behind, with a round protuberance 

beneath the hind toe, which is at a fmall diftance from the 


Grus Pfophia, Pallas fpicil. fafc. IV. tab. I. 

Inhabits South America ■, lives in the woods ; feeds on the fruit 
that fall down. Does not perch. Makes a ftrong noife with 
its mouth, which it anfwers by a different noife from its belly, 
as if it came from the anus. Lays many eggs. 

Pfophia of Linn.*us, from ^otpiia Jlrepitum edo. Perdix of Brijfon, 

I. 227. only I. fpecies. A beautiful fpecimen in the Leverian 




Bill, a little convex. XXXIX. BUS- 

Nostrils, open, oblong. 

Tongue, doping on each fide near the end, and pointed. 

Legs, long, and naked above the knees. 

Toes, only three ; no back toe. 

Bustard, Br. Zool.fol. tab. IV. Br. Zool. I. tab. XLIV. Ex - 

Inhabits Europe, AJia, Africa, and New Holland. 

Otis of Linn^us and Brijjbn, V. 18. One has IV. the other III 

fpecies. De Buffon. Pliny tells us, that Otis was the Greek 

name, that the Spanifo was Sarda. 


[ 24 J 



Bill, weak, (lender, ftrait at the bafe, with afoft protuberant fub- 
ftance, in which the noftrils are lodged. Tongue, entire: 
Legs, fhort, and red : Toes, divided to the origin. Swift and 
diftant flight, walking pace. Plaintive note, or cooing, peculiar 
to the order. The male inflates or fwells up its breaft in court- 
fhip. Female, lays but two eggs at a time. Male and female 
fit alternately; and feed their young, ejecting the meat out of 
their ftomachs into the mouths of the neftlings. Granivorous, 
feminivorous. The neft Ample, in trees, or holes of rocks, 
or walls. 

XL. PIGEON. There is only one genus of this order; it is therefore needlefs to 
repeat the characters. 


A well known bird. 
Inhabits all the Continents. 

Columba of Linn^us and Briffon, I. 67. Linnaeus has XL fpe- 
cies, Briffon XLIV. 


[ H ] 



Bodies, from the fize of a Thrufli, to that of the golden-crefted 
Wren. The enliveners of the woods and fields; fprightly, and 
much in motion; their nefts very artificial ; monogamous, bac- 
civorous, granivorous, feminivorous, infeftivorous ; their ufual 
pace, hopping; of a few, running. Short flyers, except on 
their migrations only. All have three Toes before, one behind. 

Bill, (trait, deprefled. XLL STARE 

Nostrils, guarded above by a prominent rim. 

Tongue, hard and cloven. 

Toes, the middle joined to the outmoft as far as the firft joint. 

Stare, Br. Zool. fol tab. P. II. Br. Zool. I. tab. XLVI. Ex 

Sturnus of Linn^us and Brijfon II. The firft has V fpecies, the 
laft four. 

Bill, ftrait, obtufely carinated at top, bending a little at the XLII. THRUSH 

point, and (lightly notched near the end of the upper mandible. 
Nostrils, oval and naked. 
Tongue, (lightly jagged at the end. 

H 2 Toes, 


Toes, the middle joined to the outmoft as far as the firft joint j 
back toe very large. 

Ex. Fieldfare, Br. Zpol. fol. P. II. 

Blackbirds, Br. Zcol. I. tab. XLVII. 
'Tardus of Linn/eus and Brijfon II. 
Linn^us has XXVIII fpecies, Brijfon LXIV. 

XLIII. CHAT- Bill, ftrait, a little convex above, and bending towards the point: 

near the end of the upper mandible, a fmall notch on each 

Nostrils, hid in bridles. 
Middle Toe, clofely connected at the bafe to the ontmoft. 

Et. The Pompadour, Edw. CCCXLI. 

Ampelis of Linn^us (from ay.TrO.os, a vine); becaufe the Bohe- 
mian Chatterer, the bird he places at the head of this genus, 
feeds fometimes on grapes. He reckons VII fpecies. The 
Cotinga of Brijfon II. 239- an American name. He has X fpe- 
cies. Inhabits Europe and America. 

XLIV. COLY. Bill, convex above, ftrait beneath ; very ftiort and thick. 

Nostrils, fmall, placed at the bafe, and hid by the feathers. 
Tongue, not the length of the bill, laciniated at the end. 
Toes, divided to their origin. 

Ex. Le Colicu, Brijfon III. part I. tab. XVI. Jig. z. 

Inhabits Africa. 

Linn.^us includes this among hisLoxi*. Brijfon III. part I. 304. 

calls it Colius. 




Bill, ftrong, and convex above and below, very thick at the bafe. 
Nostrils, fmall and round. 
Tongue, as if cut off at the end. 

Grofbeak, Br. Zool. fol. tab. U. 

Pine Grofbeak, Br. Zool. I. tab. XLIX. 

Inhabits every Continent. 

Loxia of Linn^us including the Coccothraujles of Brijfon, III. 
part I. 219. the Coitus 304. the Pyrrhula 308. and Loxia or 
Crofs-bill 329. Linn/Eus has XLVII fpecies; Brijfon in ail 
XXXI. Loxia is the proper name of the Crofs-bill, from 
Xofys, oblique. 



Bill, ftrong, and conic, the fides of each mandible bending in- 
wards -, in the roof of the upper mandible, a hard knob, of 
ufe to break and comminute hard feeds. 

Bunting, Br. Zool. fol. tab. W. 

Inhabits Europe, Afia, and America. 

Emberiza of Linnaeus and Brijfon III. part I. 257. The firft has 
XXIV fpecies, the laft XV. The name is derived from Em- 
britz, or Emmeritz, its German name. Vide Gefner, av. 653. 



Bill, conoid, a little inclining towards the point, upper XLVII. TANA- 
mandible flightly ridged, and notched near the end. GER. 

Red-breafted Blackbird, Edw. CCLXVII. and greater Bulfinch, Ex. 


Inhabits North and South America; moft numerous in the latter. 



Tanagra of Linnaeus, and Tangara of Brijfon III. part I. 3. 

LiN.NiEus reckons XXIV fpecies, Brijfon XXX. 
The name Tangara is Brafdian. 

XLVIII. FINCH. Bill, perfectly conic, (lender towards the end, and very Iharp 

Goldfinch, Br. Zool. fol. tab. V. 
Sparrows, Br. Zool. I. tab. XLI. 
Inhabits all the quarters of the world. 

Fringilla of Linn^us, who enumerates XXXIX fpecies. Pajfer 
of Brijfon III. part I. 71. who has LXVII fpecies. 

XL1X. FLY- Bill, flatted at the bafe, almoft triangular, notched at the end of 
the upper mandible, and befet with bridles. 
Toes, divided as far as their origin. 

Ex. Flycatcher, Br. Zool. fol. tab. P. II. 

Inhabits all the quarters of the world. 

Mufcicapa of Linn^us and Brijfon, II. The firft has XXI fpe- 
cies ; the laft XXXVIII. 

L. LARK. Bill, ftrait, (lender, bending a little towards the end, (harp 
Nostrils, covered with feathers and bridles. 
Tongue, cloven at the end. 

10 Toes, 


Toes, divided to the origin ; claw of the back toe very long, and 
either ftrait, or very little bent. 

Larks, Br. Zool. fol. tab. S. Br. Zool. I. tab. LV. Ex. 

Inhabits Europe, Afia, Africa, and America. 
Alauda of Linn^us and Brijfon III. part II. 23'- Linn^us has 
XI fpecies, Brijfon XII. 

Bill, weak and flender. LI. WAGTAIL. 

Tongue, lacerated at the end. 
Legs, flender. 

Frequent the fides of brooks; their tails much in motion ; their 
pace running; feldom perch ; their neft on the ground. 

Wagtails, Br. Zool. I. tab. LV. Ex. 

After the example of Scopoli, I feparate thefe, the genuine Mota- 
cilla, from the other foft-bill'd fmall. birds, which he ftiles 
Sylvia. They are included among the Motacilla of Linnaeus, 
and FicednU of Brijfon III. part II. 369. 

Bill, (lender and weak. LII. WARBLERS. 

Nostrils, fmall, funk. 
Tongue, cloven. 

Feet, the exterior toe joined at the under part of the laft joint 
to the middle toe. 

Red-bread, Br. Zool. fol. tab. S. 




Inhabits all parts of the world, except the Artlic : The moft me- 
lodious of the fmaller genera : Infe&ivorous, feminivorous, de- 
light in woods and bufhes. Their pace hopping. Motacilla 
of Linn^us, Ficedula of Brijfon III. part II. $&y. Linn/eus 
has XLIX fpecies, Brijfon LXXIII. 

LIII.MANAKIN. Bill, fhort, ftrong, and hard, (lightly incurvated. 
Nostrils, naked. 
Toes, the middle clofely united with the outmoft as far as the 

third joint. 
Tail, fhort. 

Ex Manakins, Edw. CCLXI. 

Inhabits South America only. 
Pipra of Linnaeus, and Manacus of Brijfon IV. 442. Linn^us 

enumerates XIII fpecies, Brijfon XIII. 
Pipra, a imt^a,, a certain bird, mentioned by Arijiotle, hijt. an. lib. 

IX. C. I. Manacus from the Dutch, Manakin, the name they 

bear in Surinam. 

LIV.TITMOUSE Bill, ftrait, a little comprefled, ftrong, hard, and fharp pointed. 
Nostrils, round, and covered with briftles reflected over them. 
Tongue, as if cut off at the end, and terminated by three or four 

Toes, divided to their origin ; back toe very large and ftrong. 



Titmice;' Br. Zool. fol. tab. W. Br. Zool. I. tab. LVII. a reftlefs Ex. 

fliting race ; moft prolific; infedtivorous, germinivorous, pug- 

Inhabit Europe and America. 

Pans of Linn/eus and Brijfon III. part II. 539. Linn^us has 
XIV. Brijfon XVIII fpecies. Parus, from Pario, becaufe it 
lays many eggs. 

Bill, Ihort, broad at the bafe, fmall at the point, and a little lv. SWALLOW. 

Nostrils, open. 

Tongue, fhort, broad, and cloven. 
Legs, fhort. 

Tail, forked ; Wings, long. 
Inhabits the univerfe, even as far as HudforCs Bay. 

Swallow, Br. Zool fol. tab. Q^ Br. Zool. I. tab. LVIII. Swift, Ex. 

much on wing, infe&ivorous, migratory or torpid during win- 
ter, twittering, forerunners of fummer. 

Hirundo of Linnaeus and Brijfon II. 485. Linn.^us has XII 
fpecies, Brijfon XVII. 

Bill, very fhort, hooked at the end, and very flightly notched LVI GOAT- 

near the point. 
Nostrils, tubular, and a little prominent. 
Mouth, vaftly wide : On the edges of the upper part, between 

the bill and the eyes, feven fliff briftles. 
Tongue, fmall, entire at the end. 

I Lecs, 



Legs, fhort, feathered before as low as the toes. 

Toes, joined by a ftrong membrane as far as the firft joint. Claw 

of the middle toe broad-edged and ferrated. 
Tail, confifts often feathers, and is not forked. 
Inhabits Europe, AJia, and America. 
Flies by night; infeflivorous, fonorous, migratory. Has much 

of the nature of the Swallow. 

Ex. Goatfucker, Br. Zool. fol. tab. R. Br. Zool. I. tab. LIX. Capri- 

mulgus of Linn^us, Caprimulgus and Tette-chevre of Brijfon II. 
470. Linnj«us has only II fpecies, Brijfon VI. Caprimulgus 
and AiyoSnAj)? of the Ancients, from a vulgar notion that they 
fucked the teats of Goats. 


C 33 1 


Very great and heavy Bodies. Wings, imperfect ; very fmalJ, 

and ufelefs for flight, but afliftant in running. Flefh coarfe, 

and hard of digeftion. 


Struthious is a new coined word to exprefs this order ; for 
thefe birds could not be reduced to any of the Linn^an 

Bill, large, bending inward in the middle of the upper man- LVIL DODO. 

dible, marked with two oblique ribs, and much hooked at 

the end. 
Nostrils, placed obliquely near the edge, in the middle of the 

Legs, fliort, thick, feathered a little below the knees. 
Toes, three forward, one backward. 

Dodo, Edw. CCXCIV. Ex. 

Inhabits the ifles of France and Bourbon. 

Didus of Linnaeus, and Raphus of Briflbn, V. 14. only I. fpecies. 

I 2 Bill, 


LVIII. OSTRICH Bill, fmall, (loping, a little deprefied. 
Small Wings, unfit for flight. 
Legs, long, ftrong, naked above the knees. 

Ex. Oftrich and Cafibwary, Wil Orn. tab. XXV. 

Inhabits AJia, Africa, and the lower parts of South America. 
Struthie of Linn^us and Brijfon V. 3. Ill fpecies„ 


[ 3S 1 




Moft migratory, fhifting from climate to climate, from place to 
place, in order to lay their eggs, and bring up their young in 
full fecurity: the thinly inhabited north their principal breed- 
ing place ; returning at dated periods, and, in general, yielding 
to mankind delicious and wholefome nutriment. All the 
Cloven-footed, or mere Waders, lay their eggs on the ground. 
Thofe with pinnated feet form large nefts, either in the water, 
or near it. From the firft, we mud except the Heron and the 
Night-Heron*, which build in trees. 

All the Web-footed fowl either lay their eggs on the ground, or 
on the fhelves of lofty cliffs ; and none perch, except the Cor- 
vorant, Shugg, and one or two fpecies of Ducks. 

* Night Raven, Rait Syn. «v. 99*. 


[ 36 ] 

All the Cloven-footed Water-fowl have long necks and long legs, 
naked above the knees, for the convenience of wading in wa- 
ters in fearch of their prey. Thofe that prey on fifh have ftrong 
bills. Thofe that fearch for minute infects, or worms that lurk 
in mud, have (lender weak bills, and olfactory nerves of moft 
exquifite fenfe ; for their food is out of fight. 

As the name implies, their toes are divided, fome to their ori- 
gin ; others have, between the middle toe and outmoft toe, a 
fmall membrane as far as the firft joint. Others have both the 
exterior toes connected to the middlemoft in the fame manner; 
and, in a few, thofe webs reach as far as the fecond joint ; and 
fuch are called Semipalmati. 

Of the Web-footed fowl, the Flamingo, the Avofetta, and Courier, 
partake of the nature of both the Cloven and Web-footed or- 
ders ; having webbed feet, long legs, naked above the knees, 
and long necks. The other Web-footed Water-fowl being 
very much on the element, have fhort legs, placed far behind, 
and long necks ; and, when on land (by reafon of the fituation 
of their legs) an aukward waddling gate. 

The make of the Cloven-footed Water- fowl is light, both as to 
Ikin and bones j that of the Web-footed, ftrong. 


[ 37 ] 


Bill, long, broad, flat, and thin, the end widening into a circular LIX gpo . 

form like a fpoon. BILL. 

Nostrils, fmall, placed near the bafe. 
Tongue, fmall and pointed. 
Feet, femipalmated. 

Spoon-bill, Wil. orn. tab. 52. Br. Zool. II. App. ■$.%, 

Inhabits Europe, South America, and the Philippine IJlands *. 
Breeds in high trees ; feeds on fifb, and water-plants ; can fwim. 
Platalea of Linn^us, and Platea of Brifibn V. 351. Each have 
III fpecies. 

Bill, bending down at the point, with a horn, or with a tuft of LX.SCREAMER* 

feathers erect near the bafe of the bill. 
Nostrils, oval. 
Toes, divided almoft to their origin, with a very fmall membrane 

between the bottoms of each. 

* Voy. de Sonnerat, 89. 
a A.nhima 



Ex. Anhima Marcgrave 215. 

Inhabits South America. 
Palamedea of Linnaeus, Anhima and Cariama of BriJJbn V. 518. 

I call it Screamer, from the violent noife it makes. Only two 


LXL JAB1RU. Bill, long, and large, both mandibles bending upwards j the 
upper, triangular. 
Nostrils, fmall. 
No Tongue ? Marcgrave. 
Toes, divided. 

Ex. Jabiru guacu Marcgrave 200. 201. 

Inhabits South America. 

Myfteria of Linnaeus, from Muxruf, a fnout. Ciconia of BriJfonV. 
371. Only one fpecies. 

LXII. BOAT- Bill, broad, flat, with a keel along the middle, like a boat 
BILL. reverfed. 

Nostrils, fmall, lodged in a furrow. 


Toes, divided. 

Ex- 1 Tamatia Marcgrave 208. 209. Brown's Zool. 92. tab. XXXVI. 

Inhabits South America. 
Cancroma of Linnaeus, from their feeding on Crabs, who has II 

fpecies ; the Cochkarhis of Brijfon V. 206. who has the fame 




Bill, long, ftrong, fharp pointed. LXIII. HERON. 

Nostrils, linear. 
Tongue, pointed. 

Toes, connected as far as the firft joint by a membrane j back 
toe large. 

Crefted Heron, Br. Zool. fol. tab. A. Ex. 

Female Heron, Br. Zool. II. tab. LXI. 
Inhabits every continent. 

Ardea of Linnaeus. Ardea, Ciconia, and Balearica of Brijfon V. 
361. 391. 511. LiNNy-Eus has XXVI fpecies, Brijfon LX. 

Bill, ftrong, thick, ftrait, comprefled, the upper mandible com- LXIV.UMBRE. 
pofed of feveral pieces. 

Brown's Zool. 90. tab. XXXV. Ex. 

Inhabits Senegal and the South of Africa. 

Scopus of Brijfon, who has a fingle fpecies. He calls it Scopus, 

from o-jtifls, a fliade; and Ombrette from the general deep brown 

of its plumage. 

Bill, long, thick at the bafe, wholly incurvated. Eyes, lodged LXV. IBIS. 

in the bafe. 
Face, naked. 
Nostrils, linear. 
Tongue, fhort and broad. 
Toes, connected at the bafe by a membrane. 

K Red 


Ex. Red Curlew Catejby Carol. I. LXXXIV. White-headed Ibis, lnd. 

Zool. tab. X. 
Inhabits Europe, Afia, and America. 
Tantalus of Linnaeus, Numenius of BriJfonV. 311. Linn^us 

has VII fpecies. Brijfon mixes them with the genuine Curlews, 

and has in all XIV. 

LXVI.CURLEW. Bill, long, (lender, incurvated. 
Face, covered with feathers. 
Nostrils, linear, longitudinal, near the bafe. 
Tongue, fhort, and fharp pointed. 
Toes, connected as far as the firft joint by a flrong membrane, 

Ex. Curlew Br. Zool. II. tab. LXIII. 

Inhabits Europe, America, the Philippine IJles, and New Holland. 
Scolopax of Linnaeus, Numenius of Brijfon V. 311. LiNNiEus 
has IV fpecies of genuine Curlews. 

LXVII. SNIPE. Bill, two inches long and upwards; (lender, (trait, and weak. 
Nostrils, linear, lodged in a furrow. 
Tongue, pointed, (lender. 
Toes, divided, or very (lightly connected; back toe very fmall, 

Ex, Woodcock, Br. Zool. II. tab. LXV. 

Inhabits Europe, Afia, and America. 

Scolopax of Linnaeus, Limofa and Scolopax of Brijfon V. 261. 292. 

Linn^us reckons XIV fpecies, exclufive of the Curlews. 

Brijfon XIII. Woodcock being the name of a fpecies inha- 

o bitinp; 


biting woods, I change it to the more comprehenfive one of 
Snipe, which fignifies a long bill. 

Bill, ftrait, flender, and not an inch and a half long. LXVIII. SAND- 

Nostrils, fmall. Pl?ER. 

Tongue, (lender. 

Toes, divided ; generally the two outmoft connected at bottom 
by a fmall membrane. 

Purr Br. Zool. II. tab. LXXI. Ex> 

Inhabits all the quarters of the world ; but in greateft plenty in 

the Northern. 
tfringa of Linnaeus j Vanellus, Arenaria, Glareola, and Tringa of 

Briffon V. 94. 132. 141. 177. including XXXV fpecies. 

Bill, ftrait, as fhort as the head. LXIX. PLOVER. 

Nostrils, linear. 


Toes. Wants the back toe. 

Dotterel Br. Zool. II. tab. LXXIII. ^ 

Charadrius of Linn/eus, Pluvialis of Briffon V. 43. and Himan- 

topus and OJlralega 33. and 38. Linn^us has XII. Ch. Briffon 

XV. PI. II. Himan. 

Bill, lcng, compreffed, the end cuneated. LXX. OYSTER* 

Nostrils, linear. CATCHER. 

Tongue, fcarce a third the length of the bill. 
Toes, only three j the middle joined to the exterior by a ftrong 


K a Sea- 


Ex. S^a-Pie, Br. Zool. fol. tab. D. 2. Br. Zool. II. tab. LXXIV. 

Inhabits Europe, North America, and the eaftern coaft of New 
Holland. The bill calculated to raife limpets, oyfters, and 
other fhells from the rocks. 
Hamatopus of Linn^us, OJlralega and L'Huitrier of Brijjon V. 38'. 
Only one fpecies. 

LXXI. JACANA. Bill, {lender, fharp pointed; thickeft towards the end; the Bafe 

Nostrils, fliort, fub-ovated, placed in the middle of the bill. 

Wings, armed on the front joint with a fharp, fhort fpur. 
Toes, four on each foot, armed with very long and ftrait fharp 

pointed claws. 

Ex. Spur-winged Water Hen. Edw. CCCLVIF. 

Parra of Linnaeus, Jacana of Brijfon V. 122. Linnaeus has 
has only III. genuine fpecies, Brijfon V. I retain the Brafilian 
name "Jacana. Is not the Impios Parr^e recinentis omen of Horace,, 
which was probably fome fmall bird. Vide Pliny, lib. X. c. 33. 

LXXII.PRATIN- Bill, fliort, ftrong, ftrait, hooked at the end. 
COLE. Nostrils, near the bafe, linear, oblique. 


Toes, long, flender, bafe of each connected by a very fmall mem- 
Tail, forked ; twelve feathers. 


C L O V E N - F O O T E D; 

Pratincola, Kramer Aujir. 382. 

Inhabits Southern Europe. 

Pratincola, or inhabitant of meadows, a name given it by Dr. 

Kramer, and adopted by me ; placed by Linn^us with the 

Hirundo, by Brijfon among his Glareola. 


Bill, flender, a little comprefled, and (lightly incurvated. LXXIII, RAIL. 

Nostrils, fmall. 
Tongue, rough at the end. 
Body, much comprefled. 
Tail, very fhort, 

Water-Rail, Br. Zool II. tab. LXXV. Ex. 

Inhabits Europe, Afia, and America. 

Rallus of Linn^us, who places it among others very different, 

fuch as the Land-Rail, &c. Brijfon calls the genus Rallus, but 

mixes with it others of another genus. 

Bill, ftrong, thick, a little convex : upper of the upper mandible 
lodged in a corneous fheath. Sometimes elevated and open in 
front : at other times clofely applied to the bill ; reaching be- 
yond the edges of the mandible. 

Nostrils, fmall : juft appearing out of the fheath. 

Orbits, naked, granulated. 

Wings, armed at the fecond flexure with a hard knob. 

Legs and Toes, thick, gallinaceous. Toes edged with a 
thick membrane. The middle toe connected to the next 




by a web, as far as the firft joint. Claws, blunt, guttered 
Tongue, fagittal, blunted at the point. 

A new genus. Frequents watry places in New Zeland and 

LXXV. GALLI- Bill, thick at the bafe, floping to the point; the upper mandible 
NULE. reaching far up the forehead, and not corneous. 

Body, comprefTed. 
Wings, fhort and concave. 
Toes, long, divided to their origin. 
Tail, fhort. 

Ex. Water-Hen, Br. Zool. fol. tab. L. I. Br. Zool. II. tab. LXXVII. 

Inhabits Europe, Jfia, and America. 

Fulica of Linn^us, Gallinula VI. and Porphyria V. 522. of Brijjbn, 
who has III fpecies of the firft, and X of the laft. In Bill and 
Legs, the hand-Rail agrees with this genus; but, with us, 
differs in its manners, by refiding in dry places. But, as it mi- 
grates at approach of winter, it may, in warmer climates, dur- 
ing the feafon, inhabit fenny tracts, to which the form of its 
legs are adapted. 


[ 45 J 



Bill, ftrait, flender. LXXVI.PHALA- 


Nostrils, minute. 


Body and Legs, in every refpecl: formed like the Sand-piper. 

Toes, furnifhed with fcalloped membranes. 

Scallop-toe'd Sand-piper, Br. Zool. fol. tab. E. Br. Zool, II. tab. Ex. 

Its manners, Sec. unknown. 
Inhabits Europe and North America. 
Linn^us places it among the 'Tringa ; Brijfon very judicioufly 

forms a new genus, under the name of Phalaropus, from the 

fcallops on the toes, like the <px\aps, or Coot. 

Bill, fhort, ftrong, thick at the bafe, Hoping to the end ; the LXXVII. COOT. 

bafe of the upper mandible rifing far up the forehead ; both 

mandibles of equal length. 



Nostrils, incline to oval, narrow, Ihort. 


Body, comprefled. Wings, fliort. 

Toes, long, furnifhed with broad fcalloped membranes. 

Tail, fhort. 

Ex. Coot, Br. Zool.fol. tab. F. Br. Zool. II. tab. LXXVII. 

Inhabits Europe, Jfia, and Africa. 
Continues much on the water, makes a large nelt of water-plants, 

lays fix or feven eggs. In winter, ofttimes are feen in great 

flocks on arms of the fea. 
Fulica of Linn^us, and Briffon VI. 23. Linn^sus has only 

II fpecies, for he mixes other birds with them. Brijfon 

has II. 

LXXVIII. Bill, ftrong, flender, fharp pointed. 
GREBE. Nostrils, linear. 

Tongue, flightly cloven at the end. 

Body, deprefled. Feathers, thick-fet, compact, and very fmooth 

and glofiy. 
Tail, none. Wings, fliort. 
Legs, placed very far behind, very thin, or much comprefled ; 

doubly ferrated behind. 
Toes, furnifhed on each fide with a broad, plain membrane. 

£x . Grebe, Br. Zool.fol. tab. K. Br. Zool. II. tab. LXXVIII. 

Congenerous birds, found in molt countries ; north as high as 
Hudfon's-Bay, and fouth as far as lat. 48. 30. and long. 58. 7. 



eaft *. Linn^us mixes his birds of this genus with web-footed 
birds, fuch as Divers and Guillemots, by the general name of 
Colymbi. Brijfon VI. 33. very judicioufly feparates them, and 
has under the fame name XI fpecies. 

* Cod's Fey, i. 48. Forfter's i. 115. 



W E B - F O O T E D. 


LXXIX. AVO- Bill, long, flender, very thin, and bending confiderably upwards. 


Nostrils, narrow and pervious. 

Tongue, fhort. 

Feet, palmated ; the webs deeply femilunated between each toe ; 
back toe very fmall. 

Ex. Avofetta, Br. Zool. fol. tab. G. Br. Zool. II. tab. LXXX. 

Inhabits Europe, North America, and the weftern coaft of New 

Holland *. 
Recurviroftra of Linnaeus, Avofetta of Briffon VI. 537. Two 


LXXX. COU- Bill, fhort, ftrait. 
* IER * Nostrils. 

Legs, long. Thighs, fhort. Feet, palmated ; has a back toe. 

* Dampier, iii. 85. 

j Trochilus, 


Trochilus, vulgo Corrira Aldr. av. III. 288. Wil. orn. tab. LX. Ex', 

Inhabits Italy. 

Corrira of Briffon VI. 542. Only one fpecies, and that probably 

never obferved fince the days of Aldrovandus, who is the only 

writer who feems to have feen it. 

Bill, thick, large, bending in the middle, forming a fharp angle, LXXXI. FLAM- 
the higher part of the upper mandible carinated ; the lower, 
comprefied. The edges of the upper mandible fharply denti- 
culated ; of the lower, tranfverfely fulcated. 

Nostrils, covered above with a thin plate, pervious, linearly 

Tongue, cartilaginous, and pointed at the end; the middle muf- 
cular, bafe glandular, on the upper part aculeated. 

Neck, very long. 

Legs and Thighs, of a great length. 

Feet, webbed ; the webs extend as far as the claws, but are 
deeply femilunated. 

Back. Toe, very fmall. 

Flamingo, Catejby Carol. I. LXXI1I. Ex, 

Inhabits South America, Africa, and rarely the South of Europe, 
Thcenicopterus of Linnaeus. Only one fpecies, 

L 2 With 

5 o 

W E B - F 



@ $ 


LXXX1I. ALBA- Bill, ftrong, bending in the middle, and hooked at the end of 
the upper mandible. That of the lower mandible abrupt, and 
the lower part inclining downwards. 

Nostrils, opening forward, and covered with a large convex 


Toes, no back toe. 

Albatrofs, Edw. LXXXVIII. 

Inhabits the iflands and feas within the Tropics, and as far fotith 

as lat. 6y. 15. long. 39. 35. eaft *. Two or three fpecies have 

been added to this genus. 
Diomedea exulans of Linn^us, Albatrofs of Briffon VI. 127. 


LXXXIII. AUK. Bill, ftrong, thick, convex, comprefled. 

Nostrils, linear, placed near the edge of the mandible. 
Tongue, almoft as long as the bill. 
Toes, no back toe. 

Kx. Puffin, Br. Zool. fol. tab. H. 

Great Auk, Br. Zool. II. tab. LXXXI. 

Inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Afia, and America ; grega- 
rious in general ; lays only one egg -, thefe, the Grebe, Divers, 
and Pinguins, while on land, feldom move much. 

Qcok'i Voy. i, 43. 



Ale a of LiWN^us, Fratercula and Ale a of BriffonVl. 81, 85. 
LwN4ius has V, fpecies, Brijfon IV. viz, I, of the Fr. ox Puffin, 
III of the Alea, or yf#£. 

Bill, flender, ftrong, pointed, the upper mandible (lightly bend- LXXXIV, GUIL. 

ing towards the end; bafe covered with fhort foft feathers. 
Nostrils, lodged in a hollow near the bafe. 
Tongue, {lender, almoft the length of the bill. 
Toes, no back toe. 

Guillemot, Br. Zool. fol. tab. H. 3. Ex. 

LefTer Guillemot, Br. Zool. II. tab. LXXXII. 
Inhabits the fame places with the former, and lays only one egg. 
Linn.*us clafles this genus with the Colymbi. The Uria of Brijfon 
VI. 70. who has IV. fpecies. 

Bill, ftrong, ftrait, pointed, upper mandible the longeft ; edges LXXXV.DIVER. 

of each bending inwards. 
Nostrils, linear ■, the upper part divided by a fmall cutaneous 

Tongue, long and pointed, ferrated at each fide near the bafe.' 
Legs, very thin and flat. 
Toes, the exterior the longeft; the back toe fmall, joined to the 

interior by a fmall membrane. 
Tail, fhort; confifts of twenty feathers. 

Great Northern Diver, Br. Zool. fol. tab. K. 2. Ex. 

Imber, Br. Zool. vol. II. tab. LXXXIV. 
Inhabits the north of Europe, Afia, and America. 


5 i W E B - F O O T E D. 

Colymbus of Linnaeus, and Mergits of ' Brijfon VI. 104: The lad 
has VI fpecies. Linn^us mixes with this genus Grebes and 


LXXXVI. SKIM- Bill, greatly comprefTed ; lower mandible much longer than die 
MER - upper. 

Nostrils, linear and pervious. 


Toes, a frnall back toe. 

Tail, a little forked. 

Ex. Cutwater, Catejhy Carol. I. tab. XC. 

Inhabits India and America. 

Rynchops of Linnaeus. Rygchopfalia of Brijfon VI. 223. I. 

Rynchops, from pvyx, 0? > a bill, and nomav, to cut ; the upper man- 
dible being as if cut. I call it Skimmer, from the manner of 
its collecting its food with the lower mandible, as it flies along 
the furface of the water. 

LXXXVII.TERN Bill, ftrait, (lender, pointed. 
Nostrils, linear. 
Tongue, flender and fharp. 
Wings, very long. 
Toes, a fmall back toe. 
Tail, forked. 

Ex. Great Tern, Br. Zool. fol. tab. L *. 

Little Tern, Br. Zool. II. tab. XC. 




Clamorous, much on the wing, gregarious, lays four eggs on the 

Inhabits Europe, and America, North and South. 
Sterna of Linnaeus, and Brijfon VI. 202. Linn^us has VII fpe- 

cies, Brijfon the fame. 

Bill, ftrong, ftrait, but bending down at the point; on the under 

part of the lower mandible an angular prominency. 
Nostrils, oblong and narrow, placed in the middle of the bill. 
Tongue, a little cloven. 
Body, light; Wings, long. 
Lecs, fmall, and naked above the knees; back toe fmall. 

Great Black and White Gull, Br. Zool. fol. tab. L. 

Winter Mew, Br. Zool. II. tab. LXXXVI. 

An univerfal genus ; much on the wing, clamorous, hungry, pif- 
civorous, carnivorous, gregarious; lays four or five eggs, ge- 
nerally on high cliffs. 

Larus of Linnaeus, and Larus and Stercoraria of Brijfon VI. 153. 
The firfl has XI fpecies, the laft XVIII. 



Bill, ftrait; but hooked at the end. 

Nostrils, cylindric, tubular. 


Legs, naked above the knees. 

Back Toe, none ; inftead, a fharp fpur pointing downwards. 

Fulmar, Br. Zool. fol. tab. M. 2. 
Stormy Petrel, Br. Zool IV. tab. XCL 






Inhabits all parts of the ocean; but the fpecies moft numerous in 
the high fouthern latitudes, as the Auks are in the northern. 
Many have the faculty of fpurting an oily liquid out of their 

Procellaria of Linn^us, Procellaria and Puffinus of Brijfon. Lin- 
naeus has VI fpecies, Brijfon VII. 

XC. MERGAN- Bill, (lender, a little depreiTed, furnifhed at the end with a 
SER " crooked nail. Edges of each mandible very fharply ferrated. 

Nostrils, near the middle of the mandible, fmall and fub-ovatech 
Tongue, flender. 
Feet, the exterior toe longer than the middle. 

Ex. Goofander, Br. Zool. fol. tab. N *. 

Red-breafted Goofander, Br. Zool. II. XCIII. 

Great divers, feed on fifh. 

Mergus of Linn^us, and Merganfer of Brijfon, VI. 230. Lin- 

vsmvs has VI fpecies, Brijfon VII. The name, Merganfer, or 

Inhabits the North of Europe, and North America. 

XCI. DUCK. Bill, ftrong, broad, fiat, or depreffed ; and commonly furnifhed 
at the end with a nail. Edges marked with fharp Lamella. 
Nostrils, fmall, oval. 
Tongue, broad, edges near the bafe fringed. 
Feet, middle toe the longeft. 

Ex. Br. Zool. II. tab. XCVII. 

Found in all climates. 



Anas of Linn^us, who has XLV fpecies. Brijfon divides this 
genus into Anfer and Anas ; has XVI of the firft, and XLII 
of the fecond. 

.Bill, ftrong, ftrait, bending a little towards the point. XCII. PINGUtN. 


Tongue, covered with ftrong {harp fpines, pointing backwards. 

Wings, very final!, pendulous, ufelefs for flight -, covered with 

mere flat fhafts. 
Body, covered with thick fliort feathers, with broad fhafts, placed 

as compactly as fcales. 
Legs, fhort and thick, placed quite behind. 
Toes, four Handing forward j the interior loofe, the reft 

Tail, very ft iff, confuting only of broad fhafts. 

Patagonian Pinguin, Ph. Tr. vol. LVIII. 91. tab, V. E*i. 

Inhabits an ifle near the Cape of Good Hope, on the coafts of 
New Guinea *, the ifle of Defolation, fouth of the Cape, the 
fouthern parts of South America, and the feas among the ice as 
high as fouth lat. 64. 12. long. 38. 14. eaft f- Lives much at 
fea. The wings a£t as fins. On land burrows. Are analo- 
gous to Seals. 

Diomedea demerfa and Phaethon demerfus of Linn^us. Sphenifcus 
and Catarraclis of Brijfon VI. 96. and 102. I call it Pinguin, 
the name firft given it by the Dutch voyagers, a Pinguedine. 

* Voy. de Sonnerat. 179. 
f Cook's Voy. i. 38. 

M Bill, 


XCIII.PELICAN. Bill, long and ftrait; the end either hooked or doping. 

Nostrils, either totally wanting, or fmall, and placed in a fur- 
row, that runs along the fides of the bill. 
Face, naked. 

Gullet, naked, and capable of great diftenfion. 
Toes, all four webbed. 

Ex. Pelican, Edw. XCII. 

Corvorant, Br. Zool. fol. tab. J. i. Br. Zool. II. tab. CII. 

Congenerous birds, inhabit all parts of the globe. 

Pelicanus of Linn^us, who has VIII fpecies. Brijfon divides, 
this genus into Sula y Phalarocorax, and Onocrotalus, and forms 
out of them XII fpecies, VI. 494. 5x1. and 519. All feed on 
filh. The Corvorants- fit, and often breed m trees. 

XCIV. TROPIC. Bill, comprefied, (lightly Hoping down. Point Lharp. Under 

mandible angular. 
Nostrils, pervious. 

Toes, all four webbed. 
Tail, cuneiform: Two middle feathers extending for avail length 

beyond the others. 

Ex. Tropic Bird, Edw. CXLIX. 

Inhabits within the Tropes. Flies very high. 
Phaethon of Linnaeus, from the great heighth it afpires to. Lep- 
turus of Brijfon, from the flendernefs of its tail, VI. 479. 



Bill, long, ftrait, fharp pointed. XCV. DARTER. 



Neck, of a great length. 

Face and Gullet, covered with feathers. 

Toes, all four webbed. 

Black-bellied Anh'wga, Ind. Zool. tab. XII. £ Xi 

Inhabits Guinea, Ceylon, and South America. Darts out its head 

either at its food, or at paflengers that go by; whence the 

Plotus of Linn^us, Anhinga of Briffon, VI. 476. 

The intention of giving a plate to every genus of this work, was 
entirely fuperfeded by the consideration of a New Ornitho- 
logy, undertaken by Mr. John Latham, of Dartford. In that 
comprehensive attempt, every fpecies of bird will be fully de- 
fcribed j and one or more figures will be given, explanatory of 
each genus : Mr. Latham'?, knowlege of the fubject, and the 
labor he has bellowed on it, will doubtlefsly render it worthy 
of the attention of the public. 

Ma E X P L A- 

C 59 ] 


O F T H E 

E S. 

Genus I. Falco n. 
Crested Hobby. 

F. with black head, cheeks, and hind part of neck. Head 
flightly crefted. Back, and coverts of wing, black. Primaries 
and tail, of the fame color, marked with numerous bars of 
white. Throat, white. Breaft, thighs, and vent, ferruginous. 
Legs, yellow. Size of the Englijh Hobby. 

From Surinam. Preferved in the Britijh Museum. 

Genus V. Parrot. 

White-collared Parrot. 

P. with a red bill ; blue head, cheeks, and chin ; green neck, back, 
and wings. Neck half furrounded with a white collar, pafiing 
over the upper part towards the throat. Upper part of the 



breaft of a fine red j the lower, yellow : belly, blue : thighs, 
yellow and blue : tail, cuneated; yellow beneath. 
Inhabits the ifles of the Eajl Indus ? 

in. Genus XXII. Jacamar, 

Cupreous Jacamar, fig. i. 
Alcedo Galbula, Lin. Syji. 182. 

J. with a black bill: whitifh throat: head, cheeks, wings, and 

tail, of a bluifh green : breaft, belly, and back, of a variable 

copper color, very rich and gloffy. 
Varies in fome refpefts from that figured by Mr. Edwards, tab. 

XXXIII. in having lefs green'on the backj fo probably is of 

another fex. 
Size of a Lark. 
Inhabits Surinam, and other parts of South America. 


Genus XXVIII. Creeper. 

Yellow-Cheeked Creeper. 

Cr. with green head, back, wings, and tail : cheeks and throat, 
deep yellow : breaft and fides of a yellowifh green, marked 
with bluifh fpots: belly, yellow. 

Size, inferior by half to the Englifli Creeper. 

Inhabits Surinam. 

c Genus 


Genus XXIII. Kingfisher. v. 

Red-Headed Kingfisher. 

K. with a red bill ; near the bafe of the upper mandible, a white 
fpot : head, and upper part of the neck, of an orange red : 
from each eye, towards the back, extends a purple line, termi- 
nating in a white fpot; and on the inner fide of that, one of 
black : chin, white : upper part of the back, a rich blue : the 
lower, light purple: coverts of wings, black, edged with blue: 
primaries, black : breaft and belly, yellowifh white : back, 
orange : legs, red. 

Size, lefler than the common Kingfilher. 

Inhabits India. 

Genus XXV. Tody. vi. 

Green Tody, fig. i . 
Todus Viridis, Lin. Syft. 178. 

T. with head, back, wings, and tail, of a fine green : throat, a 
rich crimfon : breaft and belly, of a pale yellow : vent, deeper. 
Size of a Wren. The Green Sparrow of Mr. Edwards, tab. 


Inhabits Jamaica, and the hot parts of America. 



Brown Tody, fig. a. 

T. with the whole upper part of a ferriginous brown : the coverts 
of the wings, croffed with a dufky bar : lower part of the body, 
olive, fpotted with white : tail, ferriginous. 

Size, larger than the former. 

Inhabits the hot parts of America. 



Genus XXVI. Bee-Eater. 

Indian Bee-Eater. 
Merops Viridis, Lin. Syft. 182. 

B. with head, and lower part of neck, of a fine light blue, bounded 
below by a line of black : a black line pafTes from bill through 
the eyes to the hind part of the head : hind part of head and 
neck, of an orange red : upper part of back, coverts of wings, 
fecondaries, and tail, green : the middle part of the fecondaries, 
of a reddilh orange : lower part of back, of a light blue : 
breaft and belly, of a yellowifh green : tail, long •, two middle 
feathers two inches longer than the others, and appear like 
mere ftiafts. 

Nearly the fize of a Redwing Thrufh. 

Inhabits India. 

Genus XXIX. Honey -Sucker. 

Yellow- fronted Honey-Sucker,^, i. 

H. with a yellow forehead : green body and coverts of wings : 
black primaries and tail. 



Purple-crowned Honey-Sucker, fig. 2. 

H. with a purple crown : green throat : rich deep blue collar 
round the whole lower part of the neck: back, green: wings, 
and forked tail, of a deep purple. 


Orange-headed Honey-Sucker, fig. 3. 

H. with an orange head : yellow throat and breaft : deep brown. 

belly and back : purple wings : bright ferruginous tail. 
All very minute. Inhabitants of the hot parts of America. 

Genus XLIII. Chatterer. 

C O T I N G A. 

Ampelis Cotinga, Lin. Syft. 298. 

Ch. with head and upper part of the body, and coverts of wings, 
of a mod fplendid blue, deepeft on the crown : belly and vent, 
of the fame color : under fide of the neck and breaft, of a 
lovely purple : in fome the breaft is crofied with a band of the 
fame blue with the upper part : primaries and tail, dufky. 

Size of a Stare. 

Inhabits Surinam, and other hot parts of South America. 





x. Genus LIII. M a n a k i n. 

Crested Man akin, fig. i. 
Pipra Rupicola, Lin. Syft. 338. 

M. with a whitifh bill : great round upright creft, of a fine 
orange color, crofTed near the end of each feather with a darker 
line : neck, back, and whole under fide, of the fame vivid 
color. The feathers on the back end fingularly, as if they had 
been cut off: and fome of the feathers on the fides of the back, 
are loofe and pointed. The primaries brown, marked with a 
white line : tail fhort, partly brown, partly orange. 

Size of a Turtle Dove. 

Inhabits Surinam. 

Golden-headed M a n a k i n, fig. 2. 

Pipra Erythrocephala, Lin. Syft. 339. 

M. with a rich yellow head : fcarlet ihoulders and thighs : black 

body, wings, and tail. 
Size of a Wren. 
Inhabits Surinam. 


Genus LXVI. Curlew. 

Pygmy Curlew, fig. 1 . 

C. with the head, back, and coverts of the wings, mixed with 
brown, ferruginous, and white : primaries, dulky, edged with 

white : 


white : breaft and belly, and rump, white : tail, dufky : the 

exterior feathers edged with white : bill and legs, black. 
Size of a Lark. 
Inhabits Holland. Sent to me by Doctor L. Theodore Gro- 


Genus LXVIII. Sandpiper. 'mi. 

Little Sandpiper, fig. i. Br. Zool. II. N°. 207. 

S. with head, upper part of the neck, back, and coverts of the 
wings, brown, edged with black, and pale rufty brown : breaft 
and belly, white. 

Leffer than a Hedge Sparrow. 

Inhabits Europe and North America. 

Genus XCI. Duck. 

Spanish Duck. 

Anas Vindila, Lin. Syft. 205. 

D. with forehead, cheeks, chin, and hind part of the head, of a 
fnowy whitenefs : crown, lalack : neck, furrounded with a black 
collar : back and breaft, bright ferruginous, crofled with nar- 
row dulky lines : wings, pale brown, without a fpeculum : 
belly, whitifti brown, fpotted with black: tail, cuneiform, 
black : legs, bluifh. 

N a Size 



Size of a Wigeon. Whittles like one. 

Inhabits Spain and Barbary, Prefented to me by Sir Hugh 
Williams, baronet. 

xiv. Genus XCII. P i n g u i n. 

Patagonian Pinguin, Ph. Tr. Vol. LVIII. 9 1 . 

P. with a flender bill, /lightly bending : head, hind and fore part 
of the neck, dufky : each fide of the neck marked with a nar- 
row ftripe of bright yellow, pointing from the head to the 
breaft, uniting beneath the dark color of the front of the 
neck, and fading away into the pure white of breaft and belly : 
whole back, of a deep cinereous color, marked with numerous 
finall cerulean fpots : outfide of wings, black : infide, white : 
tail and legs, black. 

Length, about three feet three inches. Weight, forty pounds *. 

Inhabits Falkland IJlands, New Georgia, the ifiand of Defolation, 
(vifited by Captain Cook, in his laft voyage, fouth lat. 48 i. 
eaft longitude from Greenwich 70.) and New Guinea. 

The meafurement of that which I defcribed in the Philofophical 
Transactions, is faulty, being taken from a Huffed fkin too 
much diftended. I correct it here, and add a figure of the 
bird, taken from life. 

* Former's Voy. ii. 528. To the places where the Leonine Seals are found, 
p. 5Jj of my Hi/}. £>uad. add Staten-land, and the ifland of Defolation. 



Genus XCIII. P e l e c a n. xy. 

Common Pelecan. 
Pelecanus Onocratalus, Lin. Syft. 215. 

P. with the head flightly crefted : plumage, white, tinged with a 
fine bloffom color : the primaries, black : legs and feet, pur- 
plifh : webs, dufky. 

Size, fometimes double that of a Swan : bill, twenty inches long : 
extent of wings, eleven feet eight, Englijh *. 

Inhabits the Danube, in its paflage through Hungary : abounds in 
Africa and AJia, in feveral parts : numbers about the Cafpian 
fea; and it is not unknown on lake Baikal, Found alfo of a 
vaft fize in New Holland. 

Genus the fame. XVI - 

Frigat Pelecan. 
Pelecanus A q_u i l u s, Lin. Syft. a 16. 

P. with a (lender bill, hooked at the end : under the lower mandible, 
a vaft naked fcarlet pouch, like a bladder, extending down the 
whole front of the neck. The ufes of this pouch to this and 
the former fpecies, is to convey food to their young : the com- 
mon Pelecan, which often breeds in arid deferts, makes it a ve- 
hicle for water for its young brood. Color of the plumage of the 
male, a deep brown, or chocolate ; the coverts of the wings 
lighteft, and tinged with ruft color: the longeft feather in the tail, 

• Edwards. 

2 nineteen 


nineteen inches long : the middle, or fhorteft, only eight : 
breaft of the female, white. 

Length, three feet. 

Inhabits Afcenfwn Iftand, the Weft Indies, fome of the Indian IJlands, 
and Eafter Iftand, in the fouth feas : hovers in the air with the 
gentle motion of a kite : feeds on fifh : darts on its prey as the 
fifh fwim near the furface, but does not alight on the water: 
will afiault other birds, and make them call up their prey; and 
then catch it in the fall *. 

* Dampitr. Camptachy Voy. 25. 

P. xxvi. 1, 31, for Pelican, read Pelecaa. 


N D E X. 



Avofet — — 




Beef-Eater ■ 

Bill of Birds ■ 


Body of Birds — — 
Bunting ■ 



Cere — 

Chatterer . 

Cloven-footed Water-Fowl, 


Cock — 

Columbine Order — 

Coly ■ — 

Coot ■ — 
Cotinga defer. — — 

Courier ■ » 
Creeper — — 
Crow ■ 

Cuckoo ■ * — 

Curaflb ■ ■ — 

Curlew . — 



































Frigat Pelecan 










? 8 . 













2 3 

Grebe — 






— — 







Gull — 






Head of Birds 


i. ii 


Heron — 

— i 









Three Species de- 


— 62 

>6 3 


— — 


















Jacana — 




Ibis - 

— — - 




5 1 











6 5 


Lark 1 



Limbs of Birds 





M Manakin 








Manakin — 



Rapacious Oi 











Crefted — 



Merganfer ■ 










4 1 

Sandpiper, Little — 

- ~ 

6 5 






Secondary Feathers — • 



Nefts — — 

- ~ 






Nidification ■ 



— — 



Nuptials — — 







Nuthatch — 















2 5 

Struthious O 




Orbits — — 






Oriole — — 






Oftrich — — 

*■ •■ 


Owl — — 




Oyftercatcher — 

— * 














Paradife — — * 



Tertial Feathers — 



Parrot — — 




— — 


z 5 




Title-Page explained 



Partridge ■ -_ 






Parts, external, of Birds 







Pafferine Order — 


2 5 


- — • 



Peacock — —~ 




— — 



Pelecan — — 




— — 



Petrel — — 






l 9 

Phalarope — — 



Pheafant — — 




Pies, Order of 






Pigeon — 



Wood — 




Pinguin — — 
Tatagonian — 







Pinnated Feet — 




Pintado — 





— * 


Plover — — 




— — 



Pratincole — 



Web- footed 


Fowl — 







Rail — — 






Crested Hobby 

White Collared Tarilot 





Eed-Headed King-Fisher 


I.Greetst Tody. S.BiuvwTsr Tody. 


Indian Bee Eater 




Purple Chattehek 

1. Crested JVLanakitst 2 Goeden Headed M 




Little S^ppiper 


Spanish Duck 






(2^w33 «Ki 

■SO w^- 5 *, ,